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Flashcards in Public Speaking test Deck (61)

What are the stages in the listening process?

Selecting, Attending, Understanding, and Remembering and responding


What are the 5 barriers to effective listening, and how can they be overcome?

Information overload (giving them too much information), personal concerns (distracted by personal life), outside distractions (people talking, cellphones) , prejustice, difference in speech rate and thought rate


Listening mindfully

Putting your own thoughts aside. Being on task is the huge one. you are either on task or off task


What are the four listening styles

1.) relational oriented
2.) task oriented
3.) analytical
4.) critical


What are the listening styles, and which one are you? How can improving listening help improve critical thinking skills?

relational-orientated listener. (someone comfortable listening to others express feelings and emotions) task orientated listener (prefers well organized, brief tasks, list.) analytical (prefers messages supported with facts) critical (someone who likes to evaluate)


What is audience analysis? 3 questions to ask yourself

gathering information about your audience. Ask yourself three questions. 1) How are audience members similar to one another 2) How are audience members different from one another 3) How can I establish common ground with them


When analyzing the information given to you by your audience, what sort of things might you look for in the data?

similarities and differences in the audience and common ground


What does “audience adaptation” mean, and how might a speaker do it?

ethically using information to adapt to your audience


What is “demographic analysis,” and what characteristics of audience members are considered “demographic”?

it is developing demographic information in order to develop a clear and effective message. age, gender, sex orientation, race, culture, ethnicity


What’s the difference between attitudes, beliefs, and values, and how might you adapt your speech to these elements?

attitude-reflects likes and dislikes
belief- what you hold to be true or false
value- an enduring concept of good and bad. and right and wrong


What elements of the situation affect your speech?

time, location, size of audience, occasion


How does a speaker analyze the audience while they speak? (five of them)

Eye contact, Facial expression, movement, nonverbal responsiveness, verbal responsiveness


What are some practical ways to customize your speech to the audience?

Refering to the town or an organization that the town is affiliated in


What are three guidelines for selecting a speech topic?

1.) consider your audience
2.) consider the occasion
3.) consider your own interests


What are the three main types of general purposes for speeches?

1.)speak to inform
2.) speak to persuade
3.) speak to entertain


What is the difference between a general purpose and a specific purpose?

a specific purpose is what you want your audience to be able to do or know at the end of your speech


What are three guidelines for developing a statement of purpose?

1.) Use words that refer to an observable or measureable behavior
2.) Limit the specific purpose to a single idea
3.) Make sure your specific purpose reflects the interests, expectations, and knowledge level of your audience


A specific purpose?

a statement of what listeners should be able to do by the end of the speech


A central idea

final meaning of speech...what you want them to take away from the speech


How can you ensure your topic is audience-centered?

By talking directly to the audience about stuff that is important to them


What is a blueprint of a speech and why is it beneficial?

blue print is a guideline to what you will be talking about


What are the five main ways a speaker might organize a speech? Can you provide examples of each?

topical-primacy, Recency, and Complexity
special- based on location
cause and effect- focuses on situations
problem solution- focuses on problems and solutiions


Why is subdividing main ideas important, and how does a speaker do that?

an audience will more easily remember if the information is divided into blocks. The speaker has to break down the topic into two or more sub topics


What are some ways of effectively integrating supporting material? 4 ways

1.) primacy or Recency
2.) Specificity
3.) complexity
4.) soft and hard evidence


What are hard evidence, soft evidence, primacy, and recency?

hard evidence- factual evidence and statistics
soft evidence- based on mainly opinion or inference
primacy- the most important info first
recency- most important info last


What are the differences between signposts, transitions (verbal and nonverbal), previews (initial, internal), and summaries? Can you provide examples of those, if given a topic/outline?

signposts- Cues about the relationships between a speaker's ideas (include transitions previews, and summaries)


What are the differences (in purpose and appearance) between the preparation outline and the delivery outline?

preparation outline- the detailed outline
deliver outline- much shorter and to the point


What are the main requirements for outlines in COM 115?

A, B, A format. With cover page. Requires references, and full sentences. Transitions are also full sentence


In a preparation outline, where are full-sentences required?

Everywhere in a preparation outline


What citation style is used in COM 115?

Parentithal format


Where do transitions appear on the preparation outline?

Transitions are anywhere where one idea connects to another


What are in-text citations?

That is where in your speech you cite specific source


Where should the general purpose, specific purpose, and central idea appear?

They appear at the top of the paper. General purpose first, specific purpose, central idea


What type of format is expected for the introduction and conclusion?

write out word for word what you are going to say


Why are presentational aids valuable in a speech?

sight is most important of five senses


What are examples of the three types of 3D PAs?

objects, models, and people


The seven types of 2D PAs?

Drawings, photos, maps, graphs, flip charts, boards, white boards


What are the basic principles a speaker must follow when using Powerpoint?

keep it simple. Use bullet points on each slide


What are the guidelines for using presentational aids?

Rehearse with Presentational aid, make eye contact with audience, do not pass around objects during speech, mainly control the attention of audience


What kinds of mistakes might speakers make when using PAs?

Maintain control basically


What does Murphy’s Law teach us about using PAs?

anything that can go wrong will


What are the three potential goals of informative speaking?

1.) Understanding
2.) Maintain interest
3.) Be remembered


What are the differences between the types of informative speeches, and can you provide examples of each?

procedures- how to


What can a speaker do to enhance their clarity?

Speak clearly, organize the speech well. Keep it in order. Stay on topic


What’s the difference between pedagogy and andragogy?

Pedagogy- Learning for children
Andragogy- Adult learning


What principles of adult learning can you use in your informative speeches?

Connect listeners life experience. Make new information relevant


What are some strategies a speaker can use to maintain audience interest?

1.) Tell a story that connects message
2.) use humor to keep audience on feet


What kinds of strategies enhance audience recall, and can you give examples?

Keep using recall..keep main ideas short and simply. Do not give too much information


What are the pillars of public affairs at MSU?

1.) Ethical leadership-Leading ethically. using it to bring about change and solving problems
2.) Cultural Competence- students with recognize and respect several cultures
3.) Community Engagement- Students will branch out and see how the community is working through a different lenses


What role does communication play in public affairs?

One must communicate what they learned to the classroom. They need to interact with other foreign students and work In their community


Listen Skillfully (four)

there are four goals in listening skillfully- listening for pleasure, to emphasize, to evaluate, and to gain information.


Listen Ethically

communicating everything by backing it up with facts if controversial


giving feedback to others- includes six things

Be descriptive, be specific, be positive, be constructive, be sensitive, and be realistic


eight steps in going about your speech

1 select and narrow topic, 2 determine purpose, 3 develop central idea 4 generate main ideas, 5 gather supporting material, 6 organize speech, 7 rehearse speech, 8 deliver speech


special organization

organization based on location or direction


chronological organization

time or sequence


topical organization

arrangement of divisions in a central idea according to recency, primacy, and discretion


verbal transition

when the speaker uses a word or phrase that indicates a word or relationship between two ideas.


Nonverbal transition

when the speaker uses a facial expression



The process of developing and orderly speech


how to listen skillfully

identify your listening goal