History test 3 Flashcards Preview

College history > History test 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in History test 3 Deck (88):
1

Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments to the Constitution, officially ratified by 1791. The First through Eighth Amendments dealt with individual liberties, and the ninth and tenth concerned the boundary between federal and state authority

2

Report on Public Credit

Hamilton's January 1790 report recommending that the national debt be funded-but not repaid immediately-at full value. Hamilton's goal was to make the new country creditworthy, not debt fee. Critics of his plan complained that it would benefit speculators

3

Whiskey Rebellion

July 1794 uprising by farmers in western Pennsylvania in response to enforcement of unpopular excise tax on whiskey. The federal government responded with a military presence that caused dissidents to disperse before blood was shed

4

Treaty of Greenville

1795 treaty between the United States and various Indians tribes in Ohio. The United States gave the tribes treaty goods valued at 25,000. In exchange, the Indians ceded most of Ohio to the Americans. The treaty only brought temporary peace to the region

5

Jay Treaty

1795 treaty between the United States and Britain, negotiated by John Jay. It secured limited trading right in the West Indies but failed to ensure timely removal of British forces from western forts and reimbursement for slaves removed by the British after the Revolution

6

Haitian Revolution

1791-1804 conflict involving diverse Haitian participants and armies from three European countries. At its end, Haiti became a free, independent, black-run country. The Haitian Revolution fueled fears of slave insurrections in the US

7

Federalists

Originally the term for the supporters of the ratification of the U.S. constitution in the 1788s. In the 1790s it became the name for one of the two dominant political groups that emerged during that decade. Federalist leaders of the 1790s supported Britain in foreign policy and commercial interest at home. Prominent Federalist included George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and John Adams.

8

Republicans

One of the two dominant political groups that emerged in the 1790s. Republicans supported the revolutionaries in France and worried about monarchical Federalists at home. Prominent Republicans included Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.

9

XYZ affair

1797 incident in which American negotiators in France were rebuffed for refusing to pay a substantial bribe. The incident led the United States into an undeclared war with France, known as the Quasi-War, which intensified antagonism between the federalists and republicans.

10

Alien and Sedition Acts

Basically the government said that you could not write anything that talked poorly upon them

11

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

1798 resolution condemning the Alien and Sedition Acts submitted the federal government by the Virginia and Kentucky state legislatures. The resolutions tested the idea that state legislatures could judge the constitutionality of federal laws and nullify them.

12

Tecumseh

Shawnee Chief. He died in the battle of Thames in the war of 1812

13

George Washington

Known for always trying to establish integrity and satisfy the needs of all people

14

Alexander Hamilton

He was the very first US treasurer. People wanted him to lower the National debt, but he wanted to make the nation credit worthy. He also wanted to make a second bank where 80 percent of the stock came from private investors while 20 percent came from federal government

15

Bill of rights

James Madison was considered the Founding father of the Bill of rights. They were the first ten amendments. Some people felt certain issues were left out

16

Marbury v Madison

1803 Supreme Court case that established the concept of judicial review in finding that parts of Judiciary Act of 1789 were in conflict with the Constitution. The supreme Court assumed legal authority to overrule acts of other branches of the government

17

Louisiana Purchase

1803 purchase of French territory west of the Mississippi River that stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada. The Louisiana Purchase nearly doubled the size of the United States and opened the way for future American expansion west. France gave it to us for 15 million and allies. They needed both money and allies as they were entering a war with Britain

18

Lewis and Clark expedition

1804-1806 expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark that explored the trans-Mississippi West for the U.S government. The expedition's mission was scientific, political, and geographic. They made good relations with several Indians as well.

19

Impressment

A British naval practice of seizing sailors on American ships under the claim they were deserters from the British navy. 2500 sailors were taken into service. It helped declare war on Britain

20

Embargo Act of 1807

act of congress that prohibited U.S. ships from traveling to foreign ports and effectively banned overseas trade in an attempt to deter Britain from halting U.S. ships at sea. The embargo caused grace hardships for Americans engaged in overseas commerce.

21

Battle of Tippecanoe

An attack on Shawnee Indians at prophetstown on the Tippecone RIver in 1811 by Indians William Henry Harrison. The Prophet Tenskwatawa fled with his followers. His brother Tecumseh really wanted to go to war with the US after this

22

War Hawks

Young Men who just got elected to congress and were eager for war against Britain to end impressments, fight Indians, and expand into British territory. Leaders included Henry Clay (Kentucky) John Calhoun (South Carolina)

23

Creek War

Park of the War of 1812 involving the Creek nation in Mississippi Territory and the Tennessee militiamen. General Andrew Jackson's forces gained victory at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814, forcing the creeks to sign away much of their land. This was the uprising of the Creek Indians after Tecumseh (their ally) was killed in the battle of Thames

24

Battle of New Orleans

The final battle in the War of 1812 which was fought and won by Andrew Jackson and his militiamen against the much larger British army in New Orleans. The battle didn't even matter because the peace treaty had already been signed

25

Hartford Convention

A secret meeting of New England Federalist politicians held in late 1814 to discuss constitutional changes to reduce the South's political power and thus help block policies that injured northern commercial interests

26

feme covert

Legal doctrine grounded in British common law that held that a wife's civic life was subsumed by her husband's. Married women lacked independence to own property, make contracts, or keep wages earned. The doctrine shaped women's status in the early Republic

27

Missouri Compromise

1820 congressional compromise engineered by Henry Clay that paired Missouri's entrance into the Union as a slave state with Maine's as a free state. It established Missouri's southern border as the permanent line dividing slave from free states

28

Erie Canal

Canal finished in 1825 covering 350 miles between Albany and Buffalo and linking the port of New York City with the entire Great Lakes region. This is the reason New York City is the country's premier commercial city

29

Lowell Mills

Water-powered textile mills constructed along the Merrimack River in Lowell Massachusets. This employed more than 5000 young women living in boardinghouses under supervision

30

Whigs

Political party that evolved out of the National Republicans after 1834. With a Northeast power base, the Whigs supported federal action to promote commercial development and generally looked favorably on the reform movements associated with the Second Great Awakening

31

Democrats

Political Party that evolved out of the Democratic Republicans after 1834 strongest in the South and West, the democrats embraced Andrew Jacksons vision of limited government, expanded political participation fro white men, and the promotion of an ethic of individualism

32

Trail of Tears

Forced westward journey of Cherokees from their land in Georgia to present-day Oklahoma in 1838. Despite favorable legal action, the Cherokees endured a grueling 1200 mile march overseen by federal troops. Nearly a quarter of the Cherokees died en route

33

nullification

Theory asserting that states could nullify acts of Congress that exceeded congressional powers. South Carolina advanced the theory of nullification in 1828 in response to an unfavorable federal tariff. A show of force by Andrew Jackson, combined with tariff revisions, ended with the crisis

34

Second Great Awakening

Unprecedented religious revival in the 1820s and 1830s that promised access to salvation. The second Great Awakening proved to be a major impetus for reform movements of the era, inspiring efforts to combat drinking, sexual, sin, and slavery

35

American Temperance Society

Organization founded by Lyman Beecher that linked drinking with poverty, family violence, ill heath, etc. He lectured around the country gaining convert to the cause. the temperance movement ahd considerable success, and contributed to a sharp drop in the American alcohol consumption.

36

New York Female Moral Reform Society

An organization of religious women inspired by the second great awakening to eradicate sexual sin and male licentiousness Formed in 1833, it spread to hundreds of auxiliaries and worked to curb male prostitution and seduction

37

Panic of 1837

First major economic crises of the United states that led to several years of hard times from 1837 to 1841. Sudden bankruptcies, contraction of credit, and runs on banks worked hardships nationwide. Causes were multiple and global and not well understood.

38

Strict versus Broad interpretation of the Constitution

basically strict tries to limit power of government while broad tries to expand power of government

39

John Adams

Called for canals, roads, and other types of transportation throughout his presidency. Many people feared he was too much like Hamilton in the way he used federal power to pursue commercial interest

40

Thomas Jefferson and his political ideas

called his own election the revolution of 1800. Many people thought that if he were elected we would have war and slave uprising. This was not the case however.

41

James Madison

considered founding father of bill of rights. The Madison's established the name of the white house because of all the parties they would throw.

42

Quasi War

An unofficial War between the French and the United States where the French shut down the channels and demanded large sums of money. Before fighting even went down, they had responded with a peace treaty. During the time, Republican newspapers destroyed Adams.

43

Toussaint L'ouverture

former slave who led slaves of Haiti and Spain alliance to occupy the northern region of the island. Just know he was with the Haitian Revolution

44

11th Amendment

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or Equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

45

12th Amendment

procedure for electing the President and Vice President.

46

War of 1812

War between Great Britain and United States. It happened because the US wanted Florida and Canada from great Britain. Also, the war hawks were the reason we went to war. (leaders were Calhoun and Henry Clay)Another reason to go to war was to stop impressment which was Britain taking our U.S. ships and using capturing the guys to use in the war.

47

Separate Spheres

the separate spheres was the men finding their status and authority at work and the wives to do stuff at home. Sermons and advice books claimed that men and women have separate "spheres" and duties.

48

Irish and German Immigration

Most immigrants came from these two places in 1840-1860. Many Irish immigrants started at the bottom of the free labor ladder. All of them very poor and weakened by disease and hunger. Potato blight is was caused people to come over from Ireland

49

Andrew Jackson

Led the Indian Removal act of 1830. Was elected president in 1828 after losing in 24. Also hated the bank of the United States because he thought it created undue economic power. (rich get richer) Tried to reduce spending on roads, and focus on moving the country even further west

50

John C. Calhoun

Calhoun was a war hawk and also Jackson's VP at one time. He eventually stepped down to go to south Carolina because Jackson was pissing him off. Also created the Nullification acts. (because Jackson didn't stand for Nullification acts.

51

Martin van Buren

he was president during the panic of 1837. He was also pro south and pro slavery

52

William Henry Harrison

Led the attack on the Shawnee Indians. He wanted to sell their land. (Which was in his state of Indiana)

53

John Tyler

Was president during the Lone Star Republic episode. He tried to take Texas as a state but it was rejected by the Senate.

54

Henry Clay's American system

wanted to create canals and roads. This was a package of tariffs. He also was the guy in charge of the southern line of the Missouri Compromise

55

Second Bank of the US

Headquarted in Philadelphia. This bank was run by lawyers and politicians and was all about private investments

56

The Bank War

This was Jackson trying to get rid of the first bank of the United States. It was Jackson vs Clay and Webster. Jackson played the game very well.

57

Indian Removal

This was Jackson telling the Indians that they needed to move west of The Mississippi. Of course, many people thought this was unfair but eventually a law passed and Indians had to relocate.

58

Free Labor Ideal

This meant that a person could work on their own land and those who worked hardest were most successful.

59

Manifest Destiny

Term coined in by John O'Sullivan to justify American expansion. O'Sullivan claimed that it was the nation's manifest destiny to transport its values and civilization westward.

60

Mormons

Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints founded by Joseph Smith.

61

Joseph Smith

founded the Mormon religion.

62

Brigham Young

The leader of the Mormons who built a thriving community out of a desert.

63

Texas Rebllion and Lone Start Republic

An independent republic (Texas) that rebelled by a bunch of Texans against Mexican rule. The victory at San Jacinto in 1836 helped ensure the region's independence and recognition of the United States.

64

Mexican-American War

The northern Whigs condemned the war. The whole war was over the southern states like Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, etc. Disease killed way more than the Mexicans shooting them.

65

James K. Polk

backed annexation of Texas and the annexation of Texas. He was voted president in 1845. He loved Mexico's land. He was willing to go to war for all that land.

66

Era of Good Feeling

associated with Monroe's presidency of 1817-1825. During this time the two parties that hated each other kind of became one.

67

Monroe Doctrine

basically said that European countries can't fux with the States

68

Adams-Onis Treaty

This was America saying that they would take Florida but they had to abandon any claim to Texas or Cuba

69

Republican (civic) Virtue

dedication to the common welfare of the community

70

Charles Grandison Finney

central leader in the great awakening. a lawyer and a minister who is the reason things are shut down on Sundays

71

Eli Whitney

A yale graduate who devised a machine called gin that easily separated out seeds. This allowed cotton production to soar

72

Robert Fulton

Created full steam propelled boat. Steamboats were a good travel device, but were not safe at all, and many people ended up dying in accidents

73

William Lloyd Garrison

started anti slavery society

74

California Gold Rush

Mining rush that was initiated by James Marshall's discovery of gold in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada in 1848. The hope of striking it rich drew over 250000 aspiring miners to California between 1849 and 1852 and made California a push for Statehood

75

Transcendentalism

this theory said that people should look within themselves for truth and guidance

76

Oneida community

Utopian community organized by John Humphrey Noyes in New York in 1848. These people said marriage is the root of problems.

77

Seneca falls Declaration

This demanded equal rights for women.

78

When was the Louisiana Purchase?

1803

79

When was the War of 1812

1812-1815

80

When was the Missouri Compromise

1820

81

When was the Mexican war?

1846-1848

82

First Bank of US (pg 225)

Hamilton's idea. The bank would control credit, interest rates, and the value of the currency.

83

mechanical reapers

Tools usually powered by horses or oxen that enabled farmers to harvest twelve acres of wheat a day, compared to the two or three acres a day possible with manual harvesting methods.

84

American system

The practice of manufacturing and then assembling interchangeable parts. A system that spread quickly across American industries, use of standardized parts allowed American manufacturers to employ cheap unskilled workers

85

Oregon Trail

Route from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon traveled by American settlers starting in late 1830s. Disease and accidents caused many more deaths along the trial than did Indian attacks, which migrants feared.

86

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

February 1848 treaty that ended the Mexican-American War. Mexico gave up all claims to Texas north of Rio Grande and ceded New Mexico and California to the United States. The United States agreed to pay Mexico $15 million and to assume American claims against Mexico

87

American Colonization Society

An organization dedicated to sending freed slaves and other black Americans to Liberia in West Africa. Although some African AMericans cooperated with the movement, others campaigned again segregation and discrimination.

88

underground railroad

Network consisting mainly of black homes, black churches, and black neighborhoods that helped slaves escape to the North by supplying shelter, shelter, food, and general assistance