Ch 14: European Exploration (Unit 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 14: European Exploration (Unit 1) Deck (39):
1

portolani

-charts made my medieval navigators and mathematicians in the 13th and 14th centuries
-more useful than schematic and symbolic medieval maps
-details on coastal contours, distances between ports, compass reading
-drawn on a flat scale= little use for longer voyages

2

Prince Henry the Navigator

-prince of portugal; organized voyages along west coast of Africa
-goal= seek a Christian kingdom as an ally against the Muslims, acquiring trade opportunities for Portugal, and spreading Christianity
-founded a school for navigators in 1419→ Portuguese went to Africa in search of gold; came back with slaves (1441)
-1471= discovered a new source of gold→ contract with state of Bakongo= trade in gold, ivory, and slaves→ Portuguese= leased land from local rulers and built stone forts along the coast
-death in 1460= Portuguese established series of trading posts along the West African coast (thriving business in gold and slaves)

3

Bartholomeu Dias

-Portuguese sea captain
-took advantage of westerly winds in S. Atlantic and rounded Cape of Good Hope but feared mutiny, so he returned to Portugal (not enough supplies) in 1488

4

Vasco da Gama

-Portuguese sea captain
-10ys after Dias= rounded Cape of Good Hope; stopped at Muslim merchant ports along coast of E. Africa
-Calicut= found spices, no Christians; went pack to Portugal with ginger and cinnamon, which was worth 60 times the cost of the expedition
-returned annually to that place (wanted to stop Arab shipping and create a monopoly in spice trade)
-1509= Portugal armada defeated Turkish and Indian ships; cut off flow of spices to Muslim rulers in Egypt and Ottoman Empire

5

Admiral Afonso de Albuquerque

-set up port faculties at Goa, which became the HQ for Portuguese operations throughout the entire region
-sailed to Malacca (control over Malacca would destroy Arab spice trade and provide the Portuguese with a way to the Spice Islands
-Portuguese seized city; massacred the population

6

Christopher Columbus

-Italian explorer who worked for the queen of Spain (Isabella)
-circumference= much less than ppl before thought; thought he went to Asia, but actually went to the Americas
-Nina. Pinta. Santa Maria (1492)
wanted to find gold and convert the natives (“Indians”) to Christianity
-4 voyages= still convinced he was in Asia (Caribbean Islands, mainland in Central Asia)
-discovered the New World but brought the beginning of a process of invasion that led to the destruction of an entire way of life

7

John Cabot

-Venetian seaman
-explored the New England coastline of Americas

8

Pedro Cabral

- Portuguese, accidentally discovered South America (Brazil) in 1500
-returned with 300,00 lbs of spices

9

Amerigo Vespucci

-Florentine
-described geography of the New World in letters

10

Vasco Nunez de Balboa

-Spanish explorer
-led an expedition across the Isthmus of Panama
-reached Pacific Ocean in 1513

11

Ferdinand Magellan

- strait of Magellan (tip of south america)
-1519=sailed across Pacific, killed in Philippines by natives
-one out of five of his ships completed the circumnavigation of the earth (back to Spain)

12

Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

-divided up the New World into separate Portuguese and Spanish spheres of influence (South America= Spanish
-Cape of Good Hope = Portugal; route across Atlantic= Spanish

13

conquistadors

-spanish conquerors
-god, glory, and gold
-brought diseases to America

14

Hernan Cortes

-conquered the Aztec empire(1519-1521)
-went to Tenochtitlan; made alliances with ppl who didn’t like the oppressive rule of the Aztecs
-Moctezuma= aztec monarch; thought Cortes was sent by Quetzalcoatl (god ); he offered gifts of gold to Cortes and gave them a palace to stay in
-Cortes took Moctezuma hostage; pillaged the city; 1 yr later= city revolted; Spanish died but the smallpox killed most of the natives
-temples= Spanish churches and gov buildings
-no more aztec empire

15

Francisco Pizarro

-Spanish
-1532-1533= went to New World; had 180 men with guns, horses, steel weapons
-by this time, the Inca were already infected with smallpox; mostly why he was successful
-emperor= smallpox; death= 2 sons claimed throne→ civil war
-captured Atahulapa and killed (one of sons)
-captured Cuzco (capital); aided by Incan allies; made Lima the capital for a new colony of Spanish Empire

16

enocomienda

-economic and social system that permitted the conquering Spaniards to collect tribute from the natives and use them and laborers
-holders= supposed to protect, pay and supervise their (the encomienda) spiritual needs
-Spanish ignored this; they put them to work on plantations and gold and silver mines
-disease, forced labor, and starvation,

17

Bartolome de Las Casas

-Dominican Friar
-spoke against the encomienda system, saying it was too cruel
-result= the government abolished the encomienda system

18

Boers

-Dutch farmers; settled in areas outside of Capetown (free from tropical diseases; good weather)

19

Triangular Trade

-pattern of trade that connected Europe, Africa, and Americas; new Atlantic economy
-Europe= brough manufactured goods (guns, gin, and cloth) to Africa; traded for slaves
-slaves were shipped to America’s and sold; European merchants bought tobacco, molasses, sugar, rum, coffee, and raw cotton and brought them back to Europe to be sold
-10 million African slaves were transported to America’s between 16th-19th century by British ships (half), Dutch, French, Portuguese, Danish and American ships

20

Middle Passage

-journey of slaves from Africa to America’s; the middle leg of the triangular trade route
-ships= not sanitary; long voyages; high death rates (10%); slave who survived voyages were subject to even higher death rates (diseases)
-new generation of slaves (slaves who were born and raised in the New World)= developed an immunity towards the diseases

21

The Slave Trade

-Portuguese built forts on coasts of Africa to dominate gold trade
-Dutch seized some of their forts; took control of most of their trade across the Indian Ocean
-Dutch East India Company= africa (cape of good hope) settlement; it was supposed to be a base for other Dutch ships to get supplies while going to the Spice Islands; turned into a permanent colony
-this had an affect on the natives living on the coast (not interior continent)
-planting of sugar cane
-end of 15th= Portuguese set up sugar plantations worked by African slaves in central coast of Africa
-16th= sugar plantations were set up in Brazil and Caribbean
-more slaves were needed to grow sugar cane; African slaves were shipped to Brazil and Caribbean and eventually to the New World

22

Effects of Slave Trade

-economic price= importation of manufactured goods put out the cottage industry, where ppl make the goods
-depopulation of African communities
-political= Africans were armed with guns from the trade; raids/wars b/c of the constant demand for slaves
-BENIN
-Quakers (Society of Friends)= criticize slavery; beginning of European sentiment for no more slavery
-French Revolution 1790s= french abolish slavery; 1807= English

23

The Mughal Empire

-founder= Babur; descended from Tamerlane (father’s side) and Genghis Khan (mother’s side); Akbar (grandson) brought Mughal ruler to most of India (greatest Indian empire since the Mauryan dynasty 2,000 yrs ago)
-

24

India.....

-portuguese= first to arrive; 16th century = Dutch and English arrived; competed with portugal
-English=- trading posts in Surat, Fort William, and Madras; Madras= brought Indian made cotton goods to the East Indies where they were traded for Spiced, which were brought to Engld
-Dutch= focus on spice trade in 7th century
-French= competed with British; captured Madras (British port)
-SIR ROBERT CLIVE
-British empire-builder who eventually became the chief representative of the East India Company in India; military genius; saved British
-united British power/ control in Bengal
BATTLE OF PLASSEY
-1757; British army of 3,000 defeated a Mughal army of 10 times its size
-victory= British East India Company received from the weak Mughal court the authority to collect taxes from lands in the area surrounding Calcutta
-Seven Year’s War= British forced French to withdraw completely from India\

25

China.....

MING DYNASTY
-1369-1644; Portuguese arrived in 1514; peace with nomadic tribesmen
-1630s= epidemic; suffering= peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng; occupied Beijing
-last Ming emperor= hung himself in palace gardens
QING DYNASTY
-Manchus; conquered Beijing
-strong rulers
-Kangxi and Qian-long= ruled China for more than a century; responsible for greatness
-military campaigns= expensive
-increased pressure on land= economic hardships→ rebellions
-gov= confined city walls on Canton and permitted them to reside there from Oct March
-English profits
-English wanted to have access to other cities
-Lord Macartney= visited Beijing to talk about trade restrictions with Qiang-long but he wasn’t interested in British product. Macartney was mad; China would pay for that
-English= replaced Portuguese as dominant force in European trade
-trade with China= tea and silk

26

Japan......

-anarchy→ unification
-Tokugawa Ieyasu= took title of shogun (general) in 1603; made the most powerful and longest lasting shogunates→ central authority
-Portuguese traders landed in Japan to take part in trade between japan, china, and southeast asia
-Francis Xavier= converted locals to Christianity (1549) → not good= missionaries interfered in local politics; Ieyasu expelled missionaries; Japanese Christians- persecuted
-Christian peasants revolted= they were killed
-Japanese= interested in tobacco, clocks, eyeglasses, and guns (helpful in defeating enemies)
-gov closed ports of Hirado and Nagasaki→ only small dutch community was allowed to stay b/c they didn’t bring missionaries

27

Americas.....

-Spain and Portugal established large colonial empires
-Portugal= profited from its empire in Brazil
-Spain= empire in S America but importance as commercial power decline in 17 century b/c of a drop in the output of the silver mines and the poverty of the Spanish monarchy

28

West Indies......

-french and english colonial empires in the New World include parts of the West Indies
-English= Barbados, Jamaica, and Bermuda
-French= Saint-Dominique. and Guadeloupe
-both made plantation economies worked by African slaves (tobacco, cotton, coffee, sugar)
"SUGAR FACTORIES"= sugar plantations in the Caribbean
-Jamaica= by the last 2 decades in the 18th century, it made 50,000 tons of sugar using 200,000 slaves
-Saint-Dominique= 3,000 plantations, 100,000 tons of sugar, 500,000 slaves; it was the site of the first successful slave uprising in 1793

29

British North America

-Spain claimed N America but it was ignored
-HENRY HUDSON
-English= establishing colonies
-1st permanent colony= Jamestown (1607, modern Virginia); barely survived (no quick profits)
-Massachusetts Bay colony= practice own religion + economic interest= successful colonization
-it had 4,000 settlers→ 1660 it had 40,000 settlers
-13 colonies= 1.5 million ppl by 1750; prosperous
-run by British Board of Trade, the Royal Council and the Parliament
-had legislatures that tended to act independently
-merchants (Boston, Philadelphia, New York, and Charleston) resisted regulation from British gov
-mercantilist= colonies provide England with raw materials and they buy manufactured goods from England

30

Henry Husdon

-English explorer hired by Dutch; 1609= discovered the Hudson River
-Dutch= established colony of New Netherlands (hudson river mouth to albany)
-competition between English and French= decline of Dutch commercial empire
-English seized New Netherlands and renamed it New York→ Dutch West India Company went bankrupt

31

French North America

-_____
-Samuel de Champlain= established settlement at Quebec; french began to take a more serious interest in Canada as a colony
-French N America was run autocratically (vast trading area→ furs leather, fish and timer)
-it was not very populated; French state wasn’t able to get ppl to emigrate to Canada
-unable to provide men and money for wars
-French ceded canada to British in 1793 (Treaty of Utrecht)
-decline of Spanish and Portugal led these 2 states to depend more on resources from colonies and imposed struct mercantilist rulers to keep others out
-1713= britain’s first entry into Spanish American markets when British were granted the privilege known as the asiento (transporting 4,500 slaves a year to Spanish Latin America)

32

Jacques Cartier

-french explorer
1534= discovered the St Lawrence River and laid a claim to canada as a French possession

33

Gerardus Mercator

-Flemish cartographer
-Mercator projection= conformal projections= tries to show the true shape of the landmasses but only in a limited area
-shapes of land near the equator are accurate but the farther away from the equator they lie, the more exaggerated their sizes are
-straight line= line of true direction (north, east, south, west)
-ppl used this for 4 centuries

34

Columbian Exchange

-the reciprocal importation and exportation of plants and animals between Europe and the Americas
NEW WORLD TO EUROPE
-Agricultural products= potatoes, maize, tomatoes, peanuts, tobacco, vanilla, chocolate
-animals= turkeys
-diseases= syphilis
-potatoes=easily stored for winter; enabled more ppl to survive on smaller plots of land
EUROPE TO NEW WORLD
-Agricultural products= coffee, cane sugar, wheat, rice
-animals= cows, horses, pigs, sheep, goats, chickens
-diseases= smallpox, measles, diphtheria
-human population= European colonists and African slaves
CONSEQUENCES
-for the new World..
-disease killed native (90% between 1492-1600)
-intro of horses transformed culture of the Plains Indians in North America
-for Europe
-new crops revolutionized European diet and helped feed growing population
-new Caribbean sugar plantation along with rich silver and gold mines in Peru brought influx of wealth to Spain that helped trigger inflation
-wealth generated by New World colonies increased power in western Europe
for Africa....
-wealth produced by New World sugar and tobacco plantation promoted the triangular trading system and the trans-Atlantic slave trade
-1500-1800= Africans comprised the largest group of ppl transported to the New World

35

price revolution

___________
-Europe-wide (areas affected at different times); western europe economy steady inflation (16th century)
-food= increase price (especially wheat)
-result = wages failed to keep up with price increases; agricultural/salary workers in urban areas= standard of living dropped
-aristocrats raised rents= prospered
-commercial and industrial entrepreneurs benefited b/c of rising prices, expanding markets, and cheaper labor costs
-governments= borrowed a lot from bakers; imposed new taxes on subjects

36

joint-stock company

-raises capital by selling shares to individuals who receive dividends on the investment while a board of directors runs the company
-made it easier to raise large amounts of capital for world trading ventures

37

Jacob Fugger

-given a monopoly over silver, copper , and mercury mines in Habsburg possessions of central Europe (profits= over 50% a year) in exchange for arranging large loans
-House of Fugger= bankrupt at end of 16th century when Habsburg defaulted on loans

38

The Amsterdam Exchange/Bourse

-trading of stocks replaced the exchange of goods
-1st half of 16th century= hub of European business world

39

Mercantilism

-the economic tendencies that came to dominate economic practices in the 17th century (economic principle and policies);
-belief that the total volume of trade was unchangeable; wanted to build strong, self-sufficient economies
-balance= colonies export raw materials and import finished goods
-believed that state intervention sometimes was desirable for the sake of the national good)
-prosperity of nation depended on a plentiful supply of bullion (gold/silver)
-ppl want to achieve a favorable balance of trade (exported goods were of greater value than those imported→ promoted influx of gold and silver payments that would increase the quantity of bullion
-encourage exports= gov should stimulate/protect export industries and trade (monopolies) encouraging investment in new industries through subsidies, importing foreign artisans, and improving transportation systems by building bridges, roads, and canals
-colonies= good source of raw materials and markets for fresh goods