Unit 2: Reformation and Religious Warfare in the 16th Century Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2: Reformation and Religious Warfare in the 16th Century Deck (49):

Christian/northern Renaissance humanism

-major goal= reform Christianity
-classics= bond that united all humanists into a kind of international fellowship
-education= classical and christian antiquity; brought new editions of the classics, of the Bible, and writings of church fathers
-believed that we need to change ppl before society; optimistic


Desiderius Erasmus

-most influential of all Christian humanists
-born in holland
-Handbook of the Christian Knight (1503)= reflected his preoccupation with religion,; called his conception of religion “the philosophy of Christ “ (Christianity should be guiding philosophy for the direction of daily life rather than the system of dogmatic beliefs and practices that the medieval church seems to stress
emphasized inner piety and de-emphasized the external forms of religion (sacraments, pilgrimages, fasts, veneration of saints, relics)
-simplicity= ppl need to learn the meaning of the Scriptures and the writings of the early church fathers
-edited Greek text of the New Test. and published it, and a new Latin translation in 1516= most outstanding achievement
-Martin Luther= use Erasmus’ works
-The Praise of Folly= humorous but effective criticism on corrupt practices of society
-harsh on abuses in ranks of clergy
-didn’t result in a huge reform of the Church
-Erasmus began what Luther did but he disapproved of Luther and Protestant reformers; no intention of destroying the unity of the medieval Catholic Church (but his whole program was based on reform


Thomas More

-son of London lawyer; good education
-trained in law but took interest in new Classical learning and became skilled in Latin and Greek
-became lord chancellor of England, worked for -Henry VIII
-friend of Erasmus
-made translations from Greek authors and wrote both prose and poetry in Latin
-devout; many hrs in prayer and private devotions
-Utopia= idealistic life and institutions of the community of “Utopia” (greek word of nowhere)= in the New World
-reflects his view/concerns on economic, social, and political problems of his day
-presented a new social system in which cooperation and reason replaced power and fame and proper motivating agents for human society
-in utopia= ppl works 9 hrs a day, and were rewarded according to their needs
-free of competition and greed
-intolerant of heresy; thought these ppl would reform the Church
-opposed England’s break with the Church (Roman Catholic) over the divorce of King Henry VIII; died



-the practice of holding several church offices simultaneously; problem
-led to absenteeism, when church officeholders ignored their duties and hired underlings who sometimes lacked the proper qualifications
-ppl complained about the ignorance and the ineptness of parish priests; this was widespread in the 15th century


Thomas a Kempis

-author of The Imitation of Christ
-wrote that when we die we will be judged by God how religiously we have lived our lives


Cardinal Ximenes

-used Christian humanism to reform the church
-had religious writings. like The Imitation of Christ, translated into Spanish


Martin Luther

-Germany; Born 1483
---Key beliefs......
-Salvation is by faith alone (not faith and good works, what the Catholic Church taught)
-Bible (Word of God) is the only valid authority for Christian life (not church teachings and bible)
-kept Baptism (signified rebirth through grace) and Lord's Supper (real presence of Jesus's body and blood in the bread and wine given as a testament to Go'd forgiveness of sin)
-church consists of a priesthood of all believers (no hierarchy, all equal)
-all vocations have equal merit (all honest work had equal merit; each person should serve God in his or her own individual calling)
-clergy should marry; abolished monasteries and convents
-justification by grace through faith


justification of faith

-justification is the act by which a person is made deserving of salvation
-primary doctrine of Protestant Reformation


priesthood of all believers

-all Christians who followed the word of God were their own priests


Johann Tetzel

-indulgences= remission , after death, of all or part of the punishment for sin
-sold indulgences to raise money for the St Peters Basilica


Ninety-Five Theses

-charges of abuses in the sale of indulgences
-pope= didn’t take this seriously; though that Luther was drunk
-Luther was not the first to criticize the church (john wycliff and john huss)


Edict of Worms

- Charles V; Luther was made an outlaw within the empire
-his works were to be burned and he had to be captured and delivered to the emperor
-Luther’s prince (Frederick, Elector of Saxony) sent him into hiding at Wartburg Castle (1 yr)
-he translated the New Test. into German (12 yrs= sold 200,000 copies)


Philip Melanchthon

- 1518= arrived in Wittenberg at age 21 to teach Greek and Hebrew
-attracted to Luther’s ideas and became a loyal supporter


Peasants’ War (1524-1525)

-some didn’t experience economic improvement; SW Germany= lords abuse peasants; -peasants demand new taxes and other things
peasants thought that Luther would support them
-Thomas Mustzer (radical and ex follower of Luther) encouraged the peasants to rebel against lords
revolt in 1524
L-uther (in Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants) called on German princes to put down the revolt (kill them)
-Luther partially blames the princes for the rebellion bc of their mistreatment of the peasants but he still need their support


Charles V

-Charles I before he was elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1519
-ruled large empire (spain, and its overseas possessions, traditional Austrian Habsburg lands, Bohemia, Hungary, Low Countries, kingdom of Naples) → Italians, French, Spanish, German (languages he spoke)
-wanted to maintain his dynasty’s control over his empire
-he hoped the preserve the unity of the Catholic faith throughout his empire (didn’t happen)
-4 problems (French, papacy, Turks, and Germany’s internal situation) cost him his dreams and health
-this gave Luther’s movement time to grow before facing the onslaught of Catholic forces
-LOOK AT FRANCIS I (Habsburg-Valois Wars)
-Ottomans= threat in 16the century; armies had taken control of much of the North African coast and captured the Christian island of Rhodes
-Schmalkaldic League
-Turks come back
-2 more Habsburg-Valois Wars (not a peaceful compromise)
-----Schmalkaldic Wars
-part 1= emperor’s army defeated Lutherans at Battle of Muhlberg
-Schmalkaldic League= reestablished and allied themselves (along with other German Protestant princes) with Henry II (French king), who was Catholic
-1552= revival of the War
-Charles= forced to make a truce
-Charles= abandoned all German affairs to Ferdinand (brother) in 1556; renounced all his titles; retired to country estate where he spent 2 yrs alone


Francis I

-Valois king of France; rival of Charles V
-Habsburg-Valois Wars (24 yrs)= conflicts with Charles over disputed territories in southern France, Netherlands, Rhineland, northern Spain, and Italy
-they prevented Charles from concentrating on Lutheran problem in Germany
-the Habsburg emperor then expected papa cooperation in dealing with Lutherans
-Pope Clement VII joined Francis in the 2nd Habsburg-Valois war
-Charles V’s army (1527 April)= attacked Rome(Sack of Rome); bloody
-Clement came to terms with Charles
-by 1530, Charles stood supreme over much of Italy


Suleiman the Magnificent

- leader of Ottomans; his forces killed King Louis of Hungary (Charles bro in law) at battle of Mohacs in 1526
-went to Hungary and Austria; driven back at Vienna


Schmalkaldic League

-defensive alliance formed between 8 princes and 11 imperial cities (Lutheran)


Peace of Augsburg

-end religious warfare in Germany; important turning pt in Reformation
-marked the formal division of Christianity
-Lutheranism granted equal legal standing with Catholicism
-accepted the right of German rulers to determine what religion his country will follow


King Henry VIII

-king of England
-he wanted to divorce his first wife (Catherine of Aragon) b/c she didn’t have a son (male heir)
-he fell in love with Anne Boleyn (lady in waiting); she didn’t want to be his mistress but he wanted to have a male heir; his first marriage to Catherine stood in his way
-Anne Boleyn= pregnant; Henry secretly married her in 1533
-Thomas Cranmer= ruled Catherine and Henry’s marriage “null and void” and validated his marriage with Anne; Anne= crowned queen
-baby= girl; Elizabeth
- beheaded Anne in 1536
-3rd wife= Jane Seymour; had a son (Edward VI)but died 12 days later
-4th wife= Anne of Cleves= German princess; arranged for political reasons
-he didn’t like how she looked in real life and he divorced her
-5th wife= Catherine Howard; attractive but less moral; she cheated on him (adultery); she was beheaded
-6th (and last) wife= Catherine Parr; 1543 marry; outlived Henry
-Edward VI= succeeded Henry; sickly; 9 yrs old when took throne
-real control= council of regency


Cardinal Wolsey

-highest ranking English church official and lord chancellor to the king
-Henry wanted him to get permission from Pope Clement VII to annul Henry’s marriage
-the pope would have but didn’t
-he didn’t want to upset the Holy Roman Emperor (Charles V), who was Catherine’s nephew
-Henry fired Wolsey in 1529


Thomas Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell

-archbishop of Canterbury in 1532; king’s principal secretary after Wolsey
-advised him to seek an annulment of marriage in England’s own clerical courts
-most important step= Parliament making an act that cuts off appeals from English church courts to Rome (abolished papal authority in England)
-Henry didn’t need the pope to get his annulment
-Crammer= move church of England in a more Protestant direction
new acts= cergy was allowed to marry
-elimination of images


Act of Supremacy

- Parliament accepted the break with the Church
-king= head of the church of England; controlled the church in all matters of doctrine, clerical appts, and discipline
-Treason Act= ppl who deny that the king was the head ot the church were punished (death)


Book of Common Prayer

- elaborated into a new prayer book and liturgical
- revised Protestant liturgy
-created opposition


Mary I (Bloody Mary)

-1553 ruled
-Henry’s first daughter by Catherine of Aragon; came to throne
-wanted to restore England to Roman Catholic; opposition
-married to Philip II (son of Charles V) and future king of Spain; he was disliked in Spain
-her alliance with Spain aroused hostility, especially when her forces lost Calais, the last English possession in France after the 100s yrs War
-burned/massacred Protestants→ “bloody Mary”
-she didn;t achieve her goal; England was more Protestant at the end of her reign than at the beginning
-Before= Protestantism was identified with church destruction and religious anarchy
-Now= ppl identified it with English resistance to Spanish interference
-her death ended the restoration of Catholicism in England (1558)


Elizabeth I

-1558 ruled
-Mary I's half sister
-ascended to throne; became leader of Protestant nations; laid foundations for a world empire; experienced a cultural renaissance
-daughter of Anne and Henry
-she was imprisoned during Mary’s reign; learned to hide her true feelings from public and private
-solve religious problem; didn’t want England to fall apart over religion again
- expert in ogv and foreign policies and religious affairs
-well served administratively by principal secretary of state
-Sir William Cecil and Sir Francis Walsingham= held together the office for 32 yrs; ensured much of Elizabeth’s success in foreign and domestic affairs
-she handled Parliament with skill
-they only had to meet 13 times during her entire reign
-1559= Parliament cooperated with the queen in initiating the Elizabethan religious settlement
-new Act of Supremacy= designated Elizabeth and the only supreme governor of England, as well as spiritual or clerical things or causes as temporal
-didn’t want to use the title “supreme head of the church” because she did not want to upset the Catholics (pope= head of church) ot radical Protestants (Jesus/Christ= head of church)
-Act of Uniformity= restored the church service of the Book of Common Prayer from reign of Edward VI with some revisions to make it more acceptable to Catholics
-The Thirty-Nine Articles= new confession of faith; defined theological issues midway between Lutheranism and Calvinism
-moderate Protestantism
-Mary, queen of the scots= Elizabeth’s cousin; next in line to the English throne
-driven out of Scotland by rebellious Calvinist nobles in 1568; fled to England
-Elizabeth placed her under house arrest
-for 14 yrs= Elizabeth tolerated Mary’s Catholic plots to kill Elizabeth and replace her with Catholic Mary
-1587= serious plot; Elizabeth beheaded her



- dangerous to Anglicanism; word “puritan” used in 1564 to refer to Protestants within Anglican Church, who were inspired by Calvinist theology and wanted to remove any trace of Catholicism
-Elizabeth kept them under control
-Puritans (along with the Catholics) opposed the new religious settlement


Gustavus Vasa

-led Swedish barons to overthrow Christian II
-became the king of independent Sweden 3 yrs later
-established a Lutheran Reformation in Sweden
-1530s= Swedish Lutheran National Church


Ulrich Zwingli

-leader of the Reformation in Switzerland


Marburg Colloquy

-swiss and german reform leader agree on everything but the interpretation of the Lord’s Supper
-Zwingli= thought that the Scripture words “this is my body” and “this is my blood” should be taken symbolically not literally; didn’t like Luther’s interpretation
-Luther= real presence of body and blood of Jesus “in, with, and under the bread and wine”
-it produced no agreement and no evangelical alliance
-it was a foretaste of the issues that would divide reform groups and creation of different Protestant groups



-radical reformation
-rejected the idea of the state playing an important (not dominant) role in church affairs
- attractive to peasants, weavers, miners, and artisans (affected by economic changes)
-Christian church was optional; it was an association of believers who had undergone spiritual rebirth and baptized back into the church
-they didn’t like infant baptism (liked adult baptism)
-no one should be forced to accept the truth of the Bible
-tried to return to the practices and spirit of early Christianity (strict democracy where all believers were considered equal)
-community chooses minister (anyone (except women) b/c everyone is equal)
-minister= lead service; simple service
-accepted that they would have to suffer for their faith
-simple Christian living to what they believed was the pure word of God
-Lord’s Supper= remembrance; meal of fellowship; celebrated in a private house
-believed in the complete separation of church and state; human law had no power over those God saved
-refused to hold political office or bear arms (took “thou shall not kill” seriously but some got violent)
-considered dangerous; threatened fabric of existence of 16th century society
-Protestants and Catholics agreed on getting rid of Anabaptists (only thing they did agree on )
-they suffered persecution (especially after the Peasants’ War when upper class resorted to repression)


Menno Simons

-man responsible for rejuvenating Dutch Anabaptism
-dedicated life to the spread of a peaceful, evangelical baptism; stressed separation from the world in order to truly copy the life of Jesus
-imposed strict discipline on followers (Mennonites) and banned those who refused to follow the rules
-spread from Netherlands into NW Germany and eventually to Poland and Lithuania and America


John Calvin

-French; systematic (organized) theologian and organizer of the Protestant movement; leader
-studied humanism and law in France; influenced by Luther’s writings
-not safe in Paris (King Francis I persecuted Protestants
-went to Basel (Switzerland); 1563= published Institutes of the Christian Religion
-justification by faith alone
emphasis on the the absolute sovereignty of God (“power, grace, and glory” of God)
-3 tests that indicate possible salvation= open profession of faith, decent and godly life, and participation in the sacraments of communion and baptism (no worldliness or material wealth)
-the Church was a divine institution responsible for preaching the word of God and administering the sacraments
he kept baptism and Lord’s Supper (like other Protestants)
-baptism- sign of remission of sins
-Lord’s Supper= real presence of Jesus in the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper but only in a spiritual sense (Jesus’s body is at the right hand of God and thus cannot be in the sacrament but to the believer, Jesus is spiritually present in the Lord’s Supper)
-1541= Ecclesiastical Ordinances (church constitution)
-church gov= clergy and laymen could do service
-Consistory= special body for enforcing moral discipline ; set up to oversee the moral life and doctrinal purity of Genevans (went from fraternal corrections to public penance and excommunication)
-over time, strict law against blasphemy were enacted and enforced with banishment and public whippings
-center of Protestantism
-John Knox= Calvinist Reformer in Scotland; “the most beautiful school of Christ on earth”
-missionaries= sent throughout Europe (France, Netherlands, Scotland, C and E Europe)
-16th century= Calvinism had replaced Lutheranism as the international form of Protestantism
-Calvin’s Geneva= fortress of Reformation



- ppl are either predestined to be saved (the elect) and some to be damned (the reprobate); God decides


Katherine Zell of German

-preached beside her husband (Mathew Zell) in 1527
-after her 2 children died, she dedicated her life to helping her husband and their reform faith


Catholic Reformation/Counter Reformation

-revival of Roman Catholicism; stopped of the spread of Protestantism
-reaffirm traditional Catholic practices and teachings while rejecting the principles and practices advocated by Protestant reformers
-revived best features of medieval Catholicism and then adjusted them to meet new conditions (revival of mysticism and monasticism)


new mysticism

- tradition of Catholic piety


Saint Teresa of Avila

-nun of Carmelite order
-experienced mystical visions that she claimed to be a result from the ecstatic union of her soul with God
-believed that mystical experience should lead to an active life of service on behalf of her Catholic faith
-founded order of barefoot Carmelite nuns; worked to foster their mystical experiences


Jesuits (Society of Jesus)

-most important new religious order
-became chief instrument of Catholic Reformation
-founded by Ignatius of Loyola
- important instrument for papal policy
-schools= highly disciplined (borrowed educational methods from humanist schools→ 16 century= Jesuits took over premier academic posts in Catholic Universities, 1600= most famous educators in Europe)
-propagation of the Catholic faith among non-Christians


Ignatius of Loyola

-Spanish nobleman; injured in battle, cut short military career
-experienced spiritual torment (like Luther) but solved them by submitting his will to the will of the church (not make a new church, like what luther did)
-vowed to be a soldier of God
-12 yrs= prayer, pilgrimages, going to school, working out a spiritual program in his book The Spiritual Exercises (training manual for spiritual development emphasizing exercises by which the human will could be strengthened and made to follow the will of God as manifested through the Catholic Church)
-grounded on principles of absolute obedience to the papacy, a strict hierarchical order for the society, the use of education to achieve it’s goals, and a dedication to engage in conflict for God
-came to resemble a structure of a military command
-executive leadership= general (nominated all-important positions in the order and was to be revered as the absolute head of the order
-Loyola= first general until 1556 (death)
-conversions in china more successful than in Japan
-Jesuit attempt to find parallels between Christian and Confucian concepts and similarities between Christian morality and Confucian ethics
-determined to fight Protestantism (restored Catholicism in parts of Germany and eastern Europe; Poland= won back to Church by Jesuits)


Francis Xavier

-original member of Jesuits; spread message of Christianity to the East (India, Malacca, Moluccas, Japan in 1549); didn’t reach China mainland (died of fever)


Pope Paul III

- nepotism (appt nephews as cardinals); involved in politics; patronized arts and letters on a lavish scale
-said they needed change/reform
-advocates of reform (Gasparo Contarini and Gian Pietro Caraffa) were made cardinals
-1535= formed a reform commission to study the condition of the church (1537= commission report blamed church problems on the corrupt policies of popes and cardinals
-summoned the council of trent
-1541= colloquy held at Regensburg (final attempt to settle the religious division peacefully)
-Catholic moderates (Cardinal Contarini→ thought that compromise with Protestants meant restoring Christian unity) reached a compromise with Protestant moderates
-he returned to Rome; full Catholics (Cardinal Caraffa) though that compromise with Protestants is heresy
-accused him of selling out to heretics; Caraffa was able to persuade Paul III to establish the Roman Inquisition/Holy Office in 1542 to ferret out errors → no compromise with Protestants
-Caraffa= chosen to be Pope Paul IV; increased power of Inquisition; “true pope of the Catholic Reformation”
-created the Index of Forbidden Books= list of books Catholics were not allowed to read (included all works of Protestant theologian as wells as ppl like Erasmus
-Rome= capital of Catholic Christianity; becoming Fortress Rome


Council of Trent

-1542= Pope Paul III called general council to solve religious differences caused by the Peasant revolt
-1545 March= group of cardinals, archbishops, bishops, abbots, and theologians met at Trent
-problems (plague outbreak, war between France and Spain, the changing of popes) prevented council for holding annual meetings
-Moderate Catholic reformers= hoped compromise would be made in doctrines encouraging Protestants to return to the Church
-Conservatives= favored and uncompromising restatement of Catholic doctrines in strict opposition to Protestant beliefs; they won
-FINAL DOCTRINE=reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs
- scripture + tradition= equal authorities in religious matters
-only the church could interpret Scripture
both faith and good works declared necessary for salvation
-7 sacraments, Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, and clerical celibacy were upheld
-belief in purgatory and effectiveness of indulgences were affirmed
-hawking of indulgences= prohibited
-establish theological seminaries in every diocese for the training of priests
-Roman Catholic Church= one Christian denomination among many with an organized framework and doctrinal pattern that would not be significantly altered for 400 yrs (new phase in history)



-reflected this environment in its deliberate attempt to break down the High Renaissance principles of balance and harmony
-Italian Mannerist painters= intentionally made weird proportions to give off a sense of suffering and a strong emotional atmosphere filled with anxiety and confusion (elongated)


El Greco (Domenikos Theotocopoulos)

- mannerist; from Crete; studied in venice and rome; moved to spain; became a church painter in Toledo
-his elongated figures and contorted figured, portrayed in unusual shades of yellow and green against an eerie background of turbulent grays, reflects the artist’s desire to create a world of intense emotion



-replaced mannerism; began in Italy in the last quarter of the 16th century and spread to the rest of Europe
-embraced by Catholic reform movement (catholic courts→ in the Habsburgs in Madrid, Prague, Vienna, and Brussels)
-resisted in France, England, and the Netherlands; spread to all of Europe in Latin America
-baroque artist sought to combine the Classical ideals of the Renaissance art with the spiritual feelings of the Reformation
-baroque painting style= known for its use of dramatic effects to arouse the emotions
-art/architecture= reflected the search for power that was such a large part of the 17th century ethos
-baroque churches and palaces= magnificent and richly detailed; kings and princes wanted other kings and princes as well as their subjects to be in awe for their power


Peter Paul Rubens

-Flemish master; prolific artists and important figure in the spread of the Baroque from Italy to other parts of Europe
-dramatic effects to arouse the emotions
-artistic masterpieces; bodies in violent motion, heavily fleshed nudes, dramatic use of light and show, and rich sensuous pigments converge to express intense emotions
-restless forms and constant movement= dynamic unity


Gian Lorenzo Bernini=

-Italian architect and sculptor; completed Saint Peter’s Basilica at the Vatican
-designed the vast colonnade enclosing the piazza in front of the Vatican
-St Peter’s Basilica= action, exuberance, profusion, and dramatic effects
-Throne of Saint Peter= hovers in midair in the Basilica, held by the hands of the 4 great doctors of the Catholic Church
-above= rays of golden light, mass of clouds and angels
-Ecstasy of Saint Theresa= sculpture; depicts a moment of mystical experience in the life of St Theresa (16th century)
-elegant draping + expression on her face= create a very real portrayal of physical ecstasy


Artemisia Gentileschi

-woman artist; male artists dominated art world in the 17th century
-born in Rome; studied painting under her father’s direction
-1616= moved to Florence to start career as a painter
-age of 23= became the first woman to be elected to the Florentine Academy of Design
-most known internationally for her portraits during that time; now, fame rests on a series of pictures of heroine from the Old Testament
-most famous= Judith Beheading Holofernes
-dramatic rendering of the biblical scene in which Judith slays the Assyrian general to save her besieged town form the Assyrian army