Unit 8, Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 8, Part 2 Deck (42):

Second Battle of the Marne

-March 1918 to July; German forces advanced 40 miles to the Marne; 35 miles of Paris
-Allied counterattack led by French General Ferdinand Foch and supported by American troops
-Germans defeated on July 18


lost generation

-war veterans who became accustomed to violence and who would form post war bands of fighters who supported Mussolini and Hitler in their bids for power


Armenian genocide

- kill men; expel women and children; 600,000 Armenians killed, 500,000 deported, 400,000 died while marching through the deserts and swamps of Syria
-1915= 1 mil Armenians dead


Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg

- radical, left wing socialist; formed the German Communist Party in Dec 1918


Free Corps

-groups of anti revolutionary volunteers
- crush the radical socialists tried to seize power


Woodrow Wilson

- American President; 1918 attempted to shift discussion of war aims from territorial grains to higher ground


Fourteen Point

- jan 8, 1918; Pres Wilson; he believed it justified the huge military struggle as being fought for a moral cause
-self determination
-spelled out additional steps for a truly just and lasting peace


self determination

-the process by which a country determines its own statehood and forms its own allegiances and government


Big Four

- David Lloyd George (Britain); Vittorio Orlando (Italy); George Clemenceau (France); Woodrow Wilson (US)


League of Nations

-some success in guaranteeing protection for the rights of many ethnic and religious minorities that
-weapon= imposition of economic sanctions (trade embargoes and cutting of financial ties)
-france= all alone→ couldn’t ally with Russia→ allied with Poland and the Little Entente (Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia) → these states were very weak


Treaty of Versailles

-one of the peace treaties that ended WWI
-ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers.
-It was signed on 28 June 1919
-Germans not very happy
-War Guilt Clause
-Germany had to reduce its army to 100,000 men, cut back naby, and eliminate its air force
-cession of Alsace and Lorraine to france and sections of russia to Poland
-30 miles east of the Rhine= demilitarized zone
-Germany resisted and didn’t accept treaty


War Guilt Clause

-declared Germany and Austria responsible for starting the war and ordered Germany to pay reparations for all the damage to which the Allied govs and their ppl were subject to as a result of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany + allies





Occupation of the Ruhr

-1922= Germany had financial problems→ couldn’t pay→
-France occupied the Ruhr (Germany’s chief industrial and mining center)
-France would use the mines and industries to get reparations


Treaty of Locarno

-1925; guaranteed Germany’s new Western borders with France and Belgium; beginning of a new era of European peace


Kellogg-Briand pact

-Frank Kellogg (US secretary of state) and Aristide Briand (French foreign minister)
-renounce war as an instrument of national policy


The Great Depression

-caused by a downturn in domestic economies and and international financial crisis caused by the collapse of the American Stock market in 1929
-prices for agricultural good declined (overproduction of wheat and other stuff)
-much of Europe’s prosperity was due to the American bank loans to Germany
-social repercussions= women get low paying jobs (housework; servants…); men didn’t get jobs→ un were unhappy in the reversal of traditional roles
-govs= powerless; made the problem worse-------
-political repercussions= increased gov activity (laissez faire nope); interest in Marxism; interest in fascism (authoritarian movement)


Ramsay MacDonald

- first Labour prime minister for Britain; rejected social or economic experimentation


The General Strike of 1926

- mine owners went on a national strike to lower wages of miners; settled by a compromise


National Government

-coalition of Liberals and Conservatives; claimed credit for origins Britain our of the worst stages of the depression
-used traditional policies of balanced budgets and protective tariffs


Cartel of the Left

-coalition gov formed by the Radicals and the Socialists; anti militarism, anti clericalism, and the importance of education
-differences= made it difficult to solve France’s problems


Popular Front

-leftist parties; succeeded in initiating a program for workers (France New Deal)-->established the right of collective bargaining, 42 hr work week, 2 paig vacations , and min wage
failed to solve depression
prime minister= Leon Blum (socialist leader)


Franklin Delano Roosevelt

-Democrat; pres election in 1932
-New Deal


New Deal

- policy of active gov intervention in the economy; relief, recovery, and reform


General Mustafa Kemal

- led Turkish forces in creating a new republic of Turkey in 1923
-wanted to modernized Turkey; democratic; didn’t tolerate opposition;
-westernize culture (Latin alphabet, women get rights)


Mohandas Gandhi

- India’s “Great Soul”
-set up a movement on nonviolent resistance whose aim was to forces the BRitish to improve the lot of the poor and grant independence to India
-civil disobedience
-adopted the spinning wheel as a symbol of India’s resistance to imports of british textiles


civil disobedience

- peaceful policy; refuse to obey British regulations


Marie Stopes

-Married Love, emphasized sexual pleasure in marriage


German Expressionism

-focused on suffering and shattered lives caused by the War
-George Grosz
-Otto Dix


Otto Dix

-served in the war; artist; The War= his representation the effects of the war



-artistic movement that attempted to enshrine purposelessness of life; “anti art”
-Hannah Hoch= dadaism became an instrument to comment on women’s roles in mass culture



-ought a reality beyond the material sensible world and found it in the world of the unconscious through the portrayal of fantasies, dreams, or nightmares
-use logic to portray the illogical
-Salvador Dali


Salvador Dali

=objects divorced from normal context; The Persistence of Memory



- the idea that the function of an object should determine it’s design and materials; art and engineering were unified
-Chicago School→ Louis H. Sullivan
-Walter Gropius


Walter Gropius

-Berlin architect; founded the Bauhaus School of art, architecture, and design


Arnold Schoenberg

-Viennese composer; experimented with radically new style by creating musical pieces in which tonality is abandoned (atonal music)
-12 tone composition


anotal music

-musical pieces in which tonality is abandoned



-technique in which the writer presented an interior monologue, or a report of the innermost thoughts of each character


Carl Jung

-disciple of Freud; believed that Freud’s theories were too narrow and reflected Freud’s own personal basis
-Freud thought that the unconscious was the seat of repressed desires or appetites→ Jung thought it was an opening to deep spiritual needs for ever-greater vistas for humans
-“personal conscious” and “collective conscious”


collective conscious

-Carl Jung
-it is the repository of memories that all human beings share and consisted of archetypes (mental forms or images that appear in dreams) that are common to all ppl and have special energy that creates myths, religions, and philosophies
-Jung thought that archetypes proved that mind was only in part personal or individual bc of their origin was buried so far from the past they seemed to have no human source
-function= bring original mind of humans into a new, higher state of conscious


Werner Heisenberg

-German physicist; uncertainty principle


uncertainty principle

-argued that no one could determine the path of an electron bc the very fact of observing the electron with light affected the electron’s location
-more than an explanation for the path of an election→ new worldwide view
-he shattered the confidence in predictability and dared to propose that uncertainty was at the root of all physical laws