Unit 4, Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4, Part 2 Deck (38):


-art in the 18th century
-emphasized grace and gentle action (not majesty, power, and movement in Baroque)
-rejected strict geometrical patterns; fondness for curves
-follow wandering lines of natural objects (flowers, seashells)
-like Baroque but some little things added
-secular→ lightness, charms→ pursuit of pleasure, happiness, and love


Antoine Watteau

-painter; aristocratic life paintings → sensual, refined, civilized, ladies/gents w/ elegant clothes
-upper-class world of pleasure and joy
-sadness from fragility and temporary nature of pleasure, live, and life


****Balthasar Neumann

-Vierzehnheiligen= pilgrimage church
-Residenz= Bishop’s Palace



-recapture dignity and simplicity of the Classical style of ancient Greece and Rome
-inspired by excavations of ancient Roman cities (Pompeii)
- YEARS????


Jacques-Louis David

-Oath of the Horatii→ recreated scene from Roman history where 3 Horatius bros swore, before father, that they are willing to sacrifice their lives for their country
moral seriousness; emphasis in honor and patriotism→ popular in French Rev


Johann Sebastian Bach

- Baroque style; German
-one of greatest composers of all time
-Mass in B Minor; Saint Matthew’s Passion; cantatas and motets
-to him, music was above all means a way to worship God
-his task= make “ well-ordered music in honor of God”


George Frederick Handel

-international career; secular; wrote operas
-moved to England, attempted to run an opera company
-patronized by English royal court but he wrote music for public audiences
-mostly wrote secular music but is mostly known for his Messiah


Franz Joseph Haydn

-worked for wealthy Hungarian princes
composed 104 symphonies; string quartets. concerti, songs, oratorios, Masses
-visited England→ introduced him to a place where musicians wrote for public concerts, not princes→ “LIBERTY”
-The Creation/The Seasons= oratorios for common ppl


Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

-prodigy; 1st concert at 6 yrs old
-wanted a patron→ archbishop was too demanding → moved to Vienna
-couldn’t find a permanent patron→ miserable life
-died at 35 yrs old→ debts
-carried on traditions of Italian comic opera to new heights
-The Marriage of Figaro, The Magic Flute; Don Giovanni⇒ comics; world’s greatest operas
-ease of melody and blend of grace, precision, and emotion


Henry Fielding

-1707-1754; wrote novels about ppl without hesitation who survived by their wits
-The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling= adventures of scoundrel; English life;
-attacked hypocrisy


Edward Gibbon

-Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire= among the many causes of the decline of the Roman Empire, the biggest one was the spread of Christianity
-believed in the ideas of progress
-reflected on the decline and fall of Rome→ optimistic about the future of European civilization and ability of Europeans to avoid the fate of Romans


high culture vs popular culture

-High Culture (means the literary and artistic world of the educated and the wealthy ruling class)
-popular culture= written and unwritten lore of masses, mostly passed down orally--> 2nd culture of elite; only culture for everyone else


Cesare Beccaria

-1738-1794; Italian philosophe
-On Crimes and Punishment= punishments should only be for scaring, not practice brutality


gin and vodka

-gin= England
-cheap; allowed ppl to get drunk, which was a luxury
-rich ppl could get drunk easily because they could afford lots of alcohol



printed on cheap paper; short brochures sold by itinerant peddlers to lower-classes
-spiritual and secular material
-stories of the lives of saints; satires and adventure stories


Ashkenazic Jews

- largest number of Jews
-eastern Europe
-restricted in movements; forbidden to own land or hold many jobs; forced to pay harsh taxes; subject to periods/outbursts of popular wrath
-pogroms⇒ Jewish communities were looted and massacred


Sephardic Jews

- expelled from Spain in 15th century→ migrated to cities (Amsterdam, Venice, London, Frankfurt)
-relatively free to participate in banking and commercial activities
-if successful→ valued by rulers for services→ court Jews



-result of desire for a deeper personal devotion to God
-pious sentiment, especially of an exaggerated or affected nature.
-began in Germany in 17th century when a group of clerics, who wished their religion to be more personal
-spread by teachings of Count Nikolaus von Zinzendorf and Moravian Brethren
-believed that it was the mystical dimensions (personal experience with God) in one’s life that constituted true religious experience


*****John Wesley

-mystical experience
-opposed anglican church
-preached Gospel; appealed to lower-classes
-converts= organized into Methodist Societies→ aid each other in doing good works that Wesley considered part of salvation



-John Wesley


enlightened absolutism

-enlightened despotism
-late 18 century
-follow advice of philosophes and ruled by enlightened principles→ path to modern nationhood
-legal, social, and educational reforms based on enlightenment thoughts
-Frederick II of Prussia; Catherine the Great of Russia; Joseph II of Austria


Cardinal Fleury

- king’s minister
-france pulled back from foreign adventures while commerce and trade expanded; goc promoted growth of industry (coal, textile)
-balanced budget


Louis XV

- took throne after Fleury died in 1743
ruled alone
lazy, weak→ -ministers/mistresses influenced king; began to control affairs of state and undermine prestige of monarchy
-Madam de Pompadour= charmed Louis→ gained wealth and power make important gov decisions; gave advice on appts and foreign policy
after Seven Years’ War= burdensome taxes, DEBT, more hungry ppl, carefree court life at Versaille


pocket boroughs

- boroughs who were bribed by aristocrats to elect them into Parliament


the Hanoverians

-new dynasty after Stuarts
-started in 1714
-throne was handed over to Protestant rulers of German state of Hanover
-George I= couldnt speak english
-George II= they were both not familiar with the English system
-George III


George III

-discontent over electoral system and loss of American colonies= public criticism of the king
-1780= House of Commons didn’t want the influence of the crown to increase, wanted it to decrease
-became slightly insane (thought a tree was king of Prussia)
-appointed William Pitt the Younger as prime minister


William Pitt the Younger

-son of William Pitt the Elder
-supported by merchants, industrial class, and king
stayed in power
-able to avoid corrupt parliamentary system for another generation


Orangist vs Patriots

-Orangists = stadholders; headed executive branch of gov
-Patriots= Dutch burghers; merchants, shopkeepers, artisans
-fought for democratic reforms that would open up the municipal councils to greater participation than that of oligarchies
-success→ foreign interference when Prussian king sent troops to protect his sister (wife of Orangist)
-crushed→ Orangist and regent reestablished old system


Frederick William I

-promoted evolution of Prussia’s highly efficient civil bureaucracy
-established General Directory= chief administrative agent of central gov; supervised military, police, economic and financial affairs
-civil service workers
-values= obedience; honor, and service to the king as highest duty
expanded military (45,000→ 83,000 men); 4th largest army after France, Russia, and Austria



-nobility or landed aristocracy in Prussia
-owned large estates with many serfs (dominant role in Prussian state)
-monopoly over officer corps of Prussian army
sense of service to state/king
-virtues= duty, obedience, sacrifice (same a military)
- ppl other than nobles had few real rights
-he allowed and encouraged men of unnoble birth serve important admin posts


Prussian militarism

-extreme exaltation of military virtues (even outside of the military)


Frederick II the Great

-Enlightenment thought
-educated and cultured
-father didn't like intellectual interests
-king is the “first servant of the state”
-established single code of laws for territories that eliminated use of torture except treason and murder cases
-freedom of speech and religion
-didn't change serfdom bc he still wanted noble's supports
-Prussia= more aristocratic
-didn't allow common ppl in admin
-exapanded military


Empress Maria Theresa

-reform after War of Austrian Succession
-admin= more centralized
-practical reasons= to strengthen power of Habsburg state
-bigger and modernized army
-not open to calls for reform from philosophes


*******Joseph II

-successor to maria theresa
-abolished serfdom
-new penal code= no death penalty; established principle of equality before law
-religious toleration and restrictions on Catholic Church
-deep sense of failure


Catherine the Great

-Peter III's wife
-wanted to reform along the lines of Enlightenment but smart enough to realize that her success depended on the support of the palace guard and gentry class from which it stemmed
-equality of all ppl in the eyes of the law
her policies strengthened landholding class at the expense of all others, especially Russian serfs
-trial by peers; exemption from personal taxation and corporal gov (gentry)--> Charter of Nobility 1785


Pugachev’s Revolt

-Emelyan Pugachev= succeeded in bringing together different elements of discontent into mass revolt
-he won support of many peasants when he issued a manifesto in 1774 that freed all peasants from oppressive taxes and military service
-peasants killed estates owners
-Pugachev= betrayed, captured, tortured, executed
-Catherine= oppressed peasants ever more


Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji

- Russians gained some land and the privilege of protecting Greek Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire


Partitions of Poland

-territorial divisions of Poland between Russia, Prussia, and Austria
-Poland gradually got smaller, and smaller
-1st= 1772
-2nd= 1793
-3rd= 1795