Unit 7: Europe 1850-1914 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 7: Europe 1850-1914 Deck (44):

****Louis Napoleon

-first president of the French Second Empire--> became emperor Napoleon III
-chief of state
-improve worldwide economic economic prosperity as well as his own economic policies
-reconstruction of Paris; direction of Baron Haussmann
-liberalized regime
-not successful in Mexican foreign policy


Baron Haussmann

-directed the reconstruction of Paris
-medieval parts were destroyed and replaced with modern stuff (boulevards; spacious buildings; circular plazas; public squares; underground sewage system; new public water supply; gaslights)
-military and aesthetic purpose
-broad streets make it difficult to put up barricades and easier for troops to move rapidly through cities to put down revolts


Archduke Maximilian of Austria

-Napoleon installed him as emperor of Mexico
-when french troops were needed in europe; max became an emperor without an army
-surrendered to mexican liberal forces in may 1867; executed in june


***The Crimean War

-ottoman empire declining
-start of war= 1853; Russians demanded right to protect Christian shrines in Palestine (already extended to french)--> Ottomans refuse; russians took 2 provinces→ couldn’t resolve; declare war oct 4, 1854
-1855 March 28; Brit and France declare war on Russia bc british feared a upset in the balance of powers; french were insulted by russians bccongress of vienna and now replaced them as the protectors of christians living in the ottoman empire?
-Austrians didn't help russians
-Treaty of Paris march 1856; russians forced to give up Bessarabia and accept neutrality of black sea
-2 provinces under great powers' control
-destroyed concert of europe and broke up long-standing european power relationships


Florence Nightingale

- helped make nursing an admirable profession for middle class women
-more soldiers would have died if not for her in the Crimean War
-insistence on strict sanitary conditions saved lives


***Victor Emmanuel II

-king of Piedmont
-Count Camillo di Cavour as prime minister in 1852


**Count Camillo di Cavour

-an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification
-economic expansion
-more money for large armies


Giuseppe Garibaldi

-southern Italy
- new leader of italian unification; patriot; supported Mazzini and Young Italy
-army= Red Shirts
-won most of Sicily; wanted to march to rome
-Cavour thought that marching to rome would bring war with france (papal defenders); he didn't let Garibaldi do this



- German customs union; 1834
-formed by prussia
-eliminated tolls on rivers and roads in member states; stimulated trade and added to the prosperity of its member states
-1825= all GErman states except austria joined Prussian dominated customs union
-middle class liberals began to see Prussia differently→ some thought it would bring German unification


King William I

-king after Frederick William IV
-he and advisors believed that the mary was in dire need of change if prussia was to remain a great power
-wanted to double the size of it; institute 3 yrs of military service for all young men
-middle class liberals scared of this bc they believed the gov would use it to inculcate obedience to the monarchy and strengthen the influence of conservative-military clique in Prussia


Count Otto von Bismarck

-prime minister
-determined course of modern German history



- politics of reality; politics based on practical concerns rather than theorists or ethics
-succeeded in guiding prussia’s unification of Germany
-moderate; waged war only when all other diplomatic alternatives had been exhausted and when he was reasonably sure that all the military and diplomatic advantages were on his side
-1862-1866= he governed prussia by ignoring parliament; parliament did nothing
-wars were more diplomatic and political rather than military
-always made sure that prussia was fighting one opponent and that the opponent was isolated diplomatically



-Danish war arose over these duchies
-Danish go wanted to incorporate the 2 duchies into denmark→ German nationalists didn’t like this bc both had large German population and regarded as German states
-Danes were defeated
- surrendered Schleswig and Holstein; Prussia took Schleswig and Austria administered Holstein


***The Austro-Prussian War

-russia and france= neutral
-austria and prussia isolated
-prussia had better weapons
-prusssian victory over austria and creation of N German Confederation= proved to NApoleon III’s dictum that nationalism and authoritarian gov could be combined
-Bismarck used nationalism to win support of liberals and prevent gov reform; liberalism and nationalism could be separated


North German Confederation

-German states north of Main River organized into this during the austro-prussian war
-controlled by prussia
-southern states independent
-constitution= local gov; king of prussia was head of confederation; chancellor (bismarck) was responsibly directly to the king


The Franco-Prussian War

-Bismarck and WIlliam I achieved goals (prussia dominate all of N Germany and Austria excluded from any sig role in german affairs)
-France would never be content with strong german states to its east bc of potential threat to French security
-Napoleon needed diplomatic triumph to offset domestic problems; French wanted to humiliated prussians
-Spain overthrowing Isabella II for Leopold (Hohenzollern)--> France is encircled by members of Hohenzollern dynasty
-French lose war (pay 1 billion dollars)
-Germany merged into Prussia (not prussia into germany)
-William I= proclaimed emperor of Second German Empire


***Ems Telegram

-telegram from William I for france
-Bismarck made it seem more insulting to France than it actually was--> French declare war


Ausgleich of 1867

-Compromise; created a Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary
-each empire has own constitution, bicameral legislature, gov machinery for domestic affairs, and capital
-single monarch= Francis Joseph (emperor of Austria and king of Hungary); common army, foreign policy, system of finances
-domestic affairs= hungary was independent
-didn’t satisfy other nationalities→ enabled German speaking Austrians and Hungarians Magyars to dominate the minorities (Salvs) in their respectives states


Tsar Alexander II

-came to power in midst of Crimean War; all energy to reboot Russia
-wanted to abolish serfdom (biggest problem in russia)



-village commune, collectively responsible for the peasant's land payments to the gov
-mir technically owned the land, not the individual peasants
-didn't allow peasants to leave their land



-reform; local assemblies that provided a moderate degree of self gov


Alexander Herzen

-(russian exile living in london)--> “Land and Freedom”; believed that russian peasant must be the chief instrument for social reform
-peasant communes should be self gov bodies that would form the basis of a new russia→ became known as ****populism



-aim= create new society through revolutionary acts of the peasants


Benjamin Disraeli

-tory leader
-motivated by desire to win over newly enfranchised groups to Conservative Party
-Reform Act of 1867
-believed that this would benefit the Conservatives→ it was a Liberal victory in 1868


William Gladstone

-Liberal (ed act of 1870= no abuses; allow ppl w talent compete fairly→ strengthen nation & institutions
-liberal reforms= opened civil service positions to competitive exams rather than patronage (secret ballot for voting
-abolished practice of purchasing military commission
-Education Act of 1870= attempted to make elementary schools available for all children


Reform Act of 1867

-important step towards democratization of GB
-lower monetary requirements for voting (taxes paid or income earned) → enfranchised many make urban workers
-number of votes increased


Louis Pasteur

-Frenchman; biologist; made germ theory of disease
-enormous practical applications in development of modern scientific medical practices
- proved that microorganisms of various kinds were responsible for the process of fermentation→ launch of science of bacteriology


Dmitri Mendeleyev

- Russian; classified all material elements then known on the basis of their atomic wieghts and provided the systematic foundation for periodic law


Michael Faraday

- Englishman; discovered phenomenon of electromagnetic induction and put together a primitive generator that laid the foundation for the use of electricity (economically efficient generators were not built until 1870s)



-the belief that everything mental, spiritual, or ideal was simply a result of physical forces
-truth= found in concrete material existence of human beings, not in revelations gained by feeling or intuitive flashes (Romanticism)
-development of theory of organic evolution according to natural selection


Charles Darwin

-scientist; ameteur; studied animals and plants on an official Royal Navy scientific expedition on the H.M.S Beagle
-compare animals untouched by external influence with those on the mainland
-no special creation--> evolution
-natural selection and organic evolution
-ppl didn't like his ideas at first
-some believed that his theory made humans look ordinary products of nature, not unique
-others= disturbed by implications of life as struggle for survival (no place for moral values)
-ppl who believed in rational order→ his ideas eliminated purpose and design from the universe


natural selection

-organisms that are most adaptable to their environments survive and pass on variations that enabled them to survive, while less adaptable organisms become exintct
-“survival of the fittest”
-On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection


organic evolution

-all plants and animals had evolved over a long period of time from earlier and simpler forms of life
-idea from Thomas Malthus
-struggle for existence bc more ppl are produced than can possibly survive
-ppl who succeeded adapted to env
-process made by appearance of variants→ chance variations that were in the process of inheritance enabled some organisms to be more adaptable (natural selection)
-humans too



- heating of a product to destroy the organisms causing spoilage


Joseph Lister

-developed antiseptic principle; one of the first ppl to deal with this problem
-thought that bacteria enters a wound and causes infection
-used carbolic acid (disinfectant) to eliminate infections during surgery
-patient no longer suffered from “hospital gangrene”
-sulfuric ether= used in operations→ chloroform used as anesthetic


Elizabeth Blackwell

-achieved first major breakthrough for women in medicine
-admitted to geneva College of Medicine by mistake→ perseverance and intelligent won her respect from male students; received M.D degree in 1849; established her own clinic in NYC



-firsted used in 1850 to describe a new style of painting and soon spread to literature
-emphasized everyday life of ordinary ppl, depicted with photographic accuracy; in an interest in the natural environment


Gustave Flaubert

- Frenchman; leading novelist in 1850s-1860s
perfected the realist novel
-Madame Bovary= straightforward description of barren and sordid small town life in France
-contempt for bourgeois society


William Thackeray

-wrote Britain’s prototypical Realist novel→ Vanity Fair: A Novel Without a Hero
-thought a novel should convey as strongly as possible the sentiment of reality as opposed to a tragedy ot poem which may be heroical


Charles Dickens

-greatest Victorian novelist; realist novels focus on lower nad middle classes in Britain’s early industrial age
-successful; descriptions of the urban poor and brutalization of human life were vividly realistic


Gustave Courbet

- most famous artist in realist school; word realism first used to describe one of his paintings
-everyday life
-subjects= factory workers; peasants; wives of saloon keepers
-representation of human misery


Jean Francois Millet

- painter; scenes from rural life (peasants laboring in fields)
-his realism contained some romantic sentimentality
-The Gleaners= peasant women gather in grain field→ symbiotic relationship between humans and nature


Franz Liszt

- Hungarian born composer; example of New German School achievements; prodigy; credited with introducing the concept of the modern piano recital
-invented the term symphonic poem to refer to his orchestral works (not really traditional, based on literary or pictorial ideas)
-greatest pianist of all time


*****The Ring of the Nibelungen (The Ring Cycle)

-series of 4 music dramas dealing with th mythical gods of the ancient German epic
-Richard Wagner