Unit 8: WWI and its Aftermath Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 8: WWI and its Aftermath Deck (41):

Three Emperor’s League

-Bismarck made an alliance in 1873 and 1881 with the traditionally conservative powers in Austria Hungary and Russia
-failed to work very well (Russian-Austrian rivalry in Balkans


Treaty of San Stefano

-1878; large Bulgarian state created; extended from Danube in N to Aegean Sea in S
-Bulgaria= Russian satellite→ other European powers discuss revision of treaty→
Congress of Berlin


Congress of Berlin

-1878; dominated by Bismarck
-demolished the Treaty of San Stefano (Russian humiliation)
-new Bulgarian state was reduced and rest of territory returned to Ottoman control
-Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania= independent
-Austria gets Bosnia and Herzegovina


Triple Alliance

-1882; Germany; Austria, and Italy; support existing political order while providing a defensive alliance against france or two or more great powers not members of the alliance


Reinsurance Treaty

-Germany (Bismarck) and Russia
-1887; hope to prevent a French-Russian alliance that would threaten Germany with the possibility of a two-front war


Bosnia and Herzegovina

-under protection of Austria ; 1908= Austria annex them→Serbia MAD (it crushed hopes of creating a Serbian kingdom that includes most of Southern Slavs)
-Austrian thought this would be a threat to the unity of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
-Russians supported Serbs; opposed Austria
-Serbs= war against Austria; Austria threatened to go to war with Russia if they didn’t recognize the annexation→ Russia weakened by the Russo-Japanese War= back down


Balkan Wars

-First Balkan War= 1912= serbia, bulgaria, montenegro, and greece→ Balkan League; defeated ottomans
-Second Balkan War= they were unable to agree on how to divide conquered Ottoman provinces of Macedonia and Albania


London Conference

-arranged by Austria at the end of the 2 Balkan Wars
-Austria blocked serbia’s wishes by making Albania dependent (germans supported)
-serbians viewed them as monsters→ Russians upset too; they didn’t want to back down again
-Austria still convinced that Serbia wa a mortal threat to its empire and must be crushed
-french and russian gov renewed alliance; promised not to back down; britain= closer to france
-2 camps viewed each other with suspicion



- regular practice; military draft


Archduke Franz Ferdinand

-him and wife Sophia were assassinated on June 28 1914 by Bosnian activist who worked for the Black Hand (Serbian terrorist organization dedicated to creation of pan slavic kingdom)
-Austria didn’t know if Serbian gov was directly involved but they saw it as an opportunity to show Serbia who’s boss


**Schlieffen Plan

- called for minimal troop deployment against Russia while most of the German army would make rapid invasion of western France by way of neutral Belgium



-the organization of troops and supplies for service in time for war


**First Battle of the Marne

- after Germans invade Belgium; British and french counterattack led by George Joseph Joffre


trench warfare

-warfare in which the opposing forces attack and counterattack from a relatively permanent system of trenches protected by barbed wire


Battle of Tannenberg/Battle of Masurian Lakes

- Russian defeated by Germany; these established the military reputation of the commanding general, Paul von Hindenburg, and chief of staff, General Erich Ludendorff
-Russians no longer a threat to German territory


Battle at Verdun

-1916; German offensive


Battle of the Somme

-1916; British campaigns


Battle of Champaign

-1917; french attack; all showed senselessness of trench warfare



- SW of Constantinople= British forces attempted to open Balkan front by landing forces there
T.E. L


T.E. Lawrence

- Lawrence of Arabia; inspired Arab princes to revolt against ottoman overlords (1916)


unrestricted submarine warfare

-type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning
-ex: Germans threatened to torpedo any ship caught in British isles, which they declared a war zone



-passenger liners were sunk → British ship May 7, 1915


total war

- affected lives of all citizens even if it is remote; warfare in which all of a nation’s resources, including civilians and soldiers, are mobilized for war efforts



-he process of converting business or industry from private ownership to gov control/ownership


Easter Rebellion

- Ireland; Easter Sunday; members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and Citizens Army occupied gov buildings in Dublin
-crushed by British forces and leaders to condemned to death



-Serbian peasant; Nicholas’s wife, Alexandra, thought he was a holy man bc he seemed able to stop the bleeding of her hemophiliac son
-had power behind the throne; interfered in gov affairs
-assassinated December 1916



-councils of workers’ and soldiers’ deputies; represented more radical interests of the lower classes and largely composed of socialists of various kinds



- part of Marxist Social Democratic Party; wanted Social Democrats to be a mass electoral socialist party based on a Western model
-willing to cooperate temporarily in the parliamentary democracy while working towards socialist state



-part of Marxist Social Democratic Party; under the leadership of V. I. Lenin (Vladimir Ulianov)


V. I. Lenin (Vladimir Ulianov)

- enemy of tsarist Russia; Marxist; helped organized a illegal group known as the Union for the Liberation of the Working Class
-made the Bolsheviks a violent revolution that would destroy the capitalist system
-outbreak of war gave him hope all of Europe was ripe for revolution


April Theses

-issued on April 20; Lenin presented a blueprint for revolutionary action based on his own version of the Marxist theory
-Russia moves to socialism, not bourgeois revolution
-soviets of soldiers, workers, and peasants are ready-made instruments of power; use them to overthrow the provisional gov; “peace, land, and bread”


Army Order No. 1

-issued by Petrograd soviets in March; to all Russian military forces; encourage them to remove their officers and replace them with committees composed of “the elected reps of the lower ranks” of the army
-led to the collapse of all discipline and created military chaos
-when the provisional gov attempted to initiate military offensive in July→ army dissolved; peasant soldiers back out and return home


Alexander Kerensky

-moderate socialist; prime minister in the provisional gov
-released the Bolsheviks from prison to help Petrograd when Kornilov attempted to march on Petrograd and seize power in Sept


Leon Trotsky

-revolutionary; chairman of Petrograd soviet; got Bolsheviks to overthrow gov when Lenin couldn't
-Bolshevik Revolution


Bolshevik Revolution

- Nov 6= soviets and Bolsheviks took control of Petrograd
-transfer of power to them; new soviet gov→ Council of People’s Commissars; Lenin = head


Alexandra Kollontai

lead in pushing Bolshevik program for women’s rights and social welfare reforms (health care for women and children)



-women's bureau
-within Communist Party;sent men and women to all parts of the Russian Empire to explain the new social order
-help women with divorce and women’s rights
-members were murdered by males who didn’t like this liberation
-reforms were undone


Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

-Russia and Germany; gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and Baltic Provinces
-not real peace


Russian Civil War

-Red Army defends the Bolsheviks gov against the Whites (anti-Bolsheviks) armies


war communism

- Lenin’s policy of nationalizing industrial and other facilities and requisitioning the peasants’ produce during the Russian civil war


Red Terror

- instituted by the Cheka; aimed at the destruction of all opponents of the new regime
-the element of fear in the Bolshevik regime