Unit 9, Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 9, Part 2 Deck (40):
1

“phony war”

- six-month period (October 1939–March 1940) during which no land operations were undertaken by the Allies or the Germans after the German conquest of Poland in September 1939.

2

“miracle at Dunkirk”

-German army trapped French forces at Dunkirk
-Hitler ordered the Luftwaffe to destroy Allied armies at Dunkirk but it was ineffective
-When Hitler ordered his foot soldiers to attack, the British already rebuilt their defenses and evacuated 350,000 troops (French and British)

3

Vichy France (Marshall Petain)

-authoritarian regime in ⅖ of France (wherever the Germans didn’t have)
-regarded as a Naxi puppet state

4

Winston Churchill

- prime minister of GB after Chamberlain; wanted to lead GB to victory
-didn’t want to compromise with Nazis

5

Lend-Lease Act

- principal means for providing U.S. military aid to foreign nations during World War II.

6

Pearl Harbor

-Dec 7, 1941; Japanese carrier-based aircraft attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian islands

7

Great East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere

- encompassed entire region under Japanese tutelage
-intention= liberate the colonial areas of SE Asia from Western colonial rule
-self sufficient community designed to provide mutual benefits to the occupied areas and home country

8

unconditional surrender

-complete, unqualified surrender of a belligerent nation

9

Erwin Rommel

-German general; led the Afrika Korps to Libya Feb 1941
-broke through british defenses in Egypt bc of reinforcements in N Africa

10

Battle of the North Atlantic

-submarines attacked Allied ships carrying supplies to GB

11

El Alamein

-British forces stop Rommel summer 1942; forced them back across the desert

12

Battle of Stalingrad

-turning point of the war
-German advance; Hitler was determined to capture the city
-street-by-street conflict during Sept, Oct, and Nov
-Nov 8= Hitler declared that German army had taken the city; Nov 19-20= Soviets attacked and surrounded Germans
-Germans surrender

13

Battle of Midway

- June 4, 1942; US planes destroyed all 4 of the attacking Japanese aircraft carriers and established American naval superiority of the Pacific

14

Dwight D. Eisenhower

-American general; lead 5 assault divisions on the normandy beaches on June 6

15

Normandy Invasion

-led by DD Eisenhower;
-On June 6, 1944, the Allies invade Western Europe in the largest amphibious attack in history
-resulted in the Allied liberation of Western Europe from Nazi Germany’s control.
-operation overlord

16

Battle of the Bulge

- offensive by German troops; slowed Allied advances

17

Battle of Kursk

- tank battle between Germans and Soviets; Germans lost

18

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

-US dropped atomic bombs there to prevent American casualties
-Japan unconditionally surrendered in Aug 14, 1945
-pres Truman

19

“land girls”

-women in agriculture; performed jobs usually undertaken by men

20

“Dig for Victory”

-increase food production;

21

“night witches”

-female pilots who helped defeat the Germans at Stalingrad

22

War Labor Board

-settled labor disputes
-US

23

Albert Speer

-Hitler’s personal architect; made minister for armaments and munitions in 1942
-eliminated waste and rationalizing procedures→ triple production of armaments

24

Kamikaze

- “divine wind,” suicide missions; against US warships

25

The Blitz

-German bombing campaign on British cities during World War II against London

26

Dresden fire bombing

Germany Feb 13-15 1945; bombs that create firestorms; killed 35,000 ppl

27

Nazi New Order

-Nazi’s plan for their conquered territories
-extermination of the Jews and others that were thought to be inferior
-exploitation of resources (raw materials, machines, food)
-German colonization in the E; use of Poles, Russians, and Ukrainians as slave labor
-civil admins in Norway, Denmark, and Netherlands bc Nazis considered the Aryan akin to the Germans
-inferior ppl= military admins

28

Heinrich Himmler

- strong believer in Nazi racial ideology; leader of the SS
-put in charge of German plans in the east→ evacuate Slavs and replace them with Germans (this was done to the Poles too)

29

Charles de Gaulle

- leader of the Free French movement

30

Free French

- resistance movement against Nazi rule
-created governments-in-exile in London

31

Josip Broz

- leader of a resistance movement in Yugoslavia
-led a band of guerrillas against German occupation forces
-partisan army⇒ 250,000 men, 100,000 women

32

White Rose

-group of students and a professor at University of Munich against Nazi order/rule
-distributed pamphlets denouncing the Nazi regime as lawless, criminal, and godless
-caught, arrested, executed
-crushed by Gestapo (secret police)

33

Col. Count Claus von Stauffenberg

- believed that only the elimination of Hilter would bring the overthrow of the Nazu regime

34

Madagascar Plan

-mass shipment of Jews to Madagascar → impractical

35

Final Solution

-annihilation of the Jewish ppl
-admin head= Reinhard Heydrich (head of SS’s security service)

36

Einsatzgruppen

-strike forces→ round up all Polish Jews and concentrate them in ghettos
-mobile killing units; mass graves of Jews dug by the victims before they were shot

37

Wannsee Conference

-inform party and state officials of the general procedures for the Final Solution
-January 20, 1942
-solve the Jewish question

38

death camps

- another solution to the annihilation of the Jews
-Jews living in Germany or placed controlled by German would be round up in freight trains and shipped to Poland, where 6 death camps were built
-Zyklon B= hydrogen cyanide; gas chambers look like shower rooms
-corpses burnt in crematoria

39

Nanjing

-Japanese conquest
-Japanese soldiers killed, raped, and looted the Nanjing ppl

40

comfort women

- Korean women who served as prostitutes for Japanese troops