Unit 9: Totalitarianism and WWII Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 9: Totalitarianism and WWII Deck (49):
1

totalitarian state

-repressive; gov control over all aspects of economic, social, political, cultural, and intellectual life; subordination of the individual to the state; insistence that the masses be actively involved in the regime’s goals
-single leader, single party; no liberal; police control to enforce wishes on ppl

2

Benito Mussolini

- socialist; laid the foundation for fascism (named after his group Fascio di Combattimento, League of Combat)

3

fascism

-an ideology taht exalts the nation above the individual and calls for a centralized gov with a dictatorial leader, economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition
-Mussolini

4

squadristi

- band of fascists; attacks on Socialist offices and newspapers
-WWI vets and students were attracted to it (violence)

5

March on Rome

-Mussolini and the Fascists want to seize power→ frighten the gov into giving them power; gov surrendered
-Oct 29, 1922→ King Victor Emmanuel III made Mussolini PM of Italy

6

Weimar Republic

-German democratic state; formed by Soc Dem, Catholic Center Party, and German Dem; unstable
-uprisings; attacks; didn’t change Germany’s basic gov structure
-economic difficulty (inflation; Depression)

7

Adolf Hitler

- Austrian; wanted to be an artist→ rejected by the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts
lived in Vienna from 1908-1913→ wrote Mein Kampf
-ideology= racism (anti-Semitism); German nationalist→ propaganda and terror; entered politics

8

Sturmabteilung

-SA (storm troops)
-police for Nazi party

9

Lebensraum

-living space
-a nation’s power depends of the amount of land it occupies; a nation must expand to be strong

10

Fuhrerprinzip

- leadership principle; single minded party under one leader

11

Reichstag Fire

- fire in Reichstag building Feb 27, 1933; supposedly set by communists
-Hitler was able to convince Hindenburg to issue a decree that gave the gov emergency powers (suspend all basic rights of citizens→ Nazis arrest anyone without redress)

12

Ernst Rohm

leader of the SA; openly criticized Hitler and spoke for the need for a second rev and the replacement of the regular army by the SA
-Hitler didn’t like this→ Rohm was killed along with other SA ppl

13

Schutzstaffel

-SS
-Protection Squads, control all regular and secret police forces, under Heinrich Himmler; terror and ideology

14

Hitler Jugend

-Hitler Youth; indoctrination in the youth of Nazi values

15

Bund Deutscher Madel

-German Girl’s Association; female counterpart to the Hitler Jugend
anti-Semitic policies

16

Nuremberg Laws

- excluded German Jews from German citizenship and forbade marriages and extramarital relations between Jews and German citizens

17

Kristallnacht

-“Night of the Shattered Glass”; break windows of Jewish shops; thousands of Jewish businesses were destroyed

18

Mein Kampf (My Struggle)

autobiographical account of his movement and underlying ideology

19

Paul von Hindenburg

- WWI military hero; elected president in 1925
-traditional, military man; not really in favor of the republic

20

propaganda

-program of distorted info put out only by an organization or gov to spread its policy, cause, or doctrine
Fascist Italy

21

New Economic Policy

-NEP; Lenin; modified version of the old capitalist system
-peasants were allowed to sell their own produce openly
-retail stores were allowed to employ less than 20 employees (private ownership)
-heavy industry, banking, and mines were still in the hands of the gov
-saved the Soviet Union from complete economic disaster

22

Union of Soviet Socialists Republics

-USSR; formed by Lenin and the Communists in 1922; new state
aka Soviet Union

23

Politburo

- institution that had become the leading organ of the USSR
-Left= Leon Trotsky
-wanted to continue revolution→ believed that survival of the Russ Rev depended on spread of communism abroad
-Right= rejected rev; wanted socialist state; believed that rapid industrialization would lead to worse standards of living in peasantry→ liked the NEP

24

Joesph Stalin

- joined the Bolsheviks in 1903, caught Lenin’s attention when he robbed a bank for Bolsheviks
-organized; became general secretary (appointed regional, district, city, and town party secretaries)
-favored “socialism in one country”, not world revolution
-used his position as general secretary to gain control of the Communist Party
-expelled Trotsky
-eliminated old Bolsheviks from Politburo, established dictatorship so powerful, old tsars be jealous

25

Five-Year Plan

- transformation of the Soviet Union from agricultural inot and industrial state
-collectivization

26

collectivization

-consolidate individual land and labour into collective farms

27

kulaks

-wealthy farmers

28

authoritarian state

- like totalitarianism (police powers); didn’t want a mass movement for a new order; wanted to defend the existing order
-limit participation of the masses ; passive obedience rather than active involvement in the goals of the regime

29

General Francisco Franco

-led Spanish military forces against the gov and inaugurated a brutal and bloody civil war that lasted 3 yrs

30

Spanish Civil War

- 3 yrs; spilt between Left and Right
-Left= Republicans who supported the popular front
-concentrated on urban areas and favored modernization, workers’ rights, expansion of manufacturing, civilian army, and secularization
-Right= Nationalists who supported franco’s military coup, the monarchy, the military, the agrarian economy, and the Catholic Church
-Franco’s forces were worn down by Popular Front→ captured in March 28, 1939

31

Picasso’s Guernica

-shows the mass destruction and horror caused by the mass bombings at Guernica

32

Jazz......

-?

33

"flapper"

-unconventional and lively young woman of the 1920s

34

Joseph Goebbels

- propaganda minister in Nazi Germany; created a film section of his Propaganda Ministry; encouraged the production of documentaries and popular feature that carried the Nazi message
-Triumph of the Will

35

Dopolavoro

-Mussolini's Italy; “Afterwork” national recreation agency; responsible for establishing clubhouses with libraries, radios, and athletic facilities everywhere
-enabled gov to provide and supervise recreational activity

36

Kraft durch Freude

-Nazi Germany; like the Dopolavoro
-coordinated free time of the working class by offering a variety of leisure time activities (concerts, operas, films, guided tours, sporting events)
-tours, cruises to Scandinavia, and Mediterranean

37

German rearmament

-break provisions in Treaty of Versaille; March 9 1935= new air force; military draft to expand military to 550,000 troops

38

appeasement

-belief that id European states satisfied the reasonable demands of dissatisfied powers, the latter would be content, and stability and peace would be achieved in Europe

39

Occupation of the Rhineland

- March 7, 1936; Hitler sent troops to Rhineland
-french could have attacked but they didn’t bc they needed GB support; GB ignored Germany’s occupation of the Rhineland
-this made Hitler kind made and more motivated (he thought that they thought he was weak)
-Germans liked Hitler bc he was “restoring honor”

40

Rome-Berlin Axis

-Mussolini and Hitler ally; October 1936; recognized their common political and economic interests

41

Blitzkrieg

-“lightning war”, mechanized columns, massive air power to cut quickly across battle lines
-encircle and destroy the enemy
-Luftwaffe
-panzer division

42

Luftwaffe

-Hitlers large air force; one of the result from the rearming of Germany

43

panzer division

-strike forces made of tanks, mechanized industry, and mobile artillery
-300 tanks with forces and supplies

44

Neville Chamberlain

-prime minister of Britain in 1937 on
-advocate of appeasement
-believed that the survival of the British Empire depended on an accommodation with Germany
-supported Hitler as long as it didn't lead to war

45

Sudetenland

-mountainous NW border area of Czechoslovakia that was home to 3 mill Germans

46

Munich Conference

-Sept 9 1938; GB, France, Germany, and Italy made an agreement that met Hitler’s demands
-troops were allowed to occupy Sudetenland

47

German-Soviet Nonaggression Treaty

-Aug 23, 1939; created German and Soviet spheres of influence in E Europe
-Germany gets W Poland
-Soviets get Baltic states of Estonia and Latvia and E poland
-gave Hitler the freedom to attack Poland

48

Manchuria

??

49

Chiang Kai-shek

-Chinese nationalist leader; sought to appease Tokyo by granting Japan the authority to administer areas in N China