Unit 3 Part 2 (3.4) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3 Part 2 (3.4) Deck (19):

James I of England

-was James VI of Scotland
-believed in the divine right of kings
-Puritans wanted James to eliminate the episcopal system of church organization used in the Church of England (bishops/episcopos played major admin role)
-they wanted a Presbyterian model (used in Scotland; patterned after Calvin’s church organization in Geneva; ministers/elders (presbyters) played an important governing role)
-James refused→ bishops were a major support to the crown
-he said "no bishops, no king"


balanced polity

-monarch and Parliament ruled England together
-what parliament believed



-Protestants in the Anglican Church inspired by Calvinist theology


Charles I

-son of James I
-Parliament passed the Petition of Right
-at first he accepted it but then he grew to not like the limitations it took on royal power
-1629-1640= didn’t summoned Parliament; personal rule without Parliament
-he married a Catholic woman→ suspicions about his religious inclinations
-Charles and William Laud (archbishop of canterbury) → introduced more ritual into the Anglican Church→ Puritans though this as a return to popery
-calling Parliament= focus on discontent throughout the land
-they imposed Anglican Book of Common Prayer on Scottish Presbyterians⇒ Scots rose in rebellions to Charles
-Long Parliament= put limitations on royal power


Petition of Right

-1628 (during Charles I)
-king was supposed to accept before being granted any tax revenues
-prohibited taxation without Parliament’s consent, arbitrary imprisonment, quartering of soldiers in private houses, and declaration of martial law in peacetime


English Civil War

-Parliament victorious
-New Model Army= made up of more extreme Puritans (Independents) who thought they were doing a battle for the Lord
-Oliver Cromwell
-captured Charles I and executed him
-split in the parliamentary forces (Presbyterian and army (radical Independents)
-Cavaliers vs Roundheads
-ppl who want strong monarchy and Anglican Church governed by bishops appointed by crown vs ppl who favored Parliamentary monarchy and Presbyterian Church


Oliver Cromwell

-one of the New Model Army’s leaders
-his crusaders were well disciplined and trained in the latest military tactics
-held power after civil war
-The Commonwealth= abolished monarchy and House of Lords
-power= Cromwell + Parliament
-fought Levellers
-crushed radicals
-Protestant landlords replaced Catholic property owners
- 1/2 of Ireland's population perished from famine/plague
-Navigation Act 1651= barred Dutch ships from carrying goods between other countries and england
-game England greater control over American colonies
-1655→ Cromwell ended Parliament; divided country into 11 regions, each ruled by a major general who served virtually as a military governor
-he died in 1658



-radicals; advocated ideas as freedom of speech, religious toleration, and democratic republic
-equal rights to all
-argued for the right to vote for all male householders over the age of 21
-called for annual Parliaments , women’s equality with men, and gov programs to care for the poor



-rejected religious hierarchies
-allowed women to preach at their meetings


Restoration of the Monarchy

-restored the monarchy, the Church of England, and Parliament
-Charles II and James II


Charles II

-eldest son of Charles I
-11 yrs of exile→ return to England
-Charles II had his own ideas
new Parliament (Cavalier Parliament) men in 1661; restored Anglican Church as official church of England
-laws were passed to force everyone (Catholics and Puritan Dissenters) to conform to the Anglican Church
-Charles= sympathetic to Catholicism
-bro James= Catholic
-1672= Declaration of Indulgence⇒ suspended the laws against Catholics and Puritans
-Parliament didn’t like this → wanted king to temp stop declaration
-Parliament passes the Test Act of 1673


Test Act of 1673

-passed by Parliament
-only Anglicans could hold military and civil offices


Whigs and Tories

-Whigs= wanted to exclude James and establish a Protestant king with toleration of Dissenters
-Tories= supported king, despite their dislike of James as a Catholic bc they believed Parliament should not play with the lawful succession to the throne
-they were the first political parties in the English speaking world


James II

-opposite of Test Act⇒ James named Catholics to high positions in gov, army, navy, and universities
-new Declaration of Indulgence 1687= suspended all alwa barring Catholics and Dissenters from office
-no rebellion bc he is an old man, might die soon→ daughters Anne and Mary = Protestant (1st wife)
-1688 June 10→ son of James born (2nd wife who is a Catholic)


Glorious Revolution

-William of Orange and Mary (wife) were invited by the united Whigs and Tories to overthrow James for the sake of Protestantism
-James II fled to France
-1689 Jan Convention Parliament= declared that James tried to overthrow the constitution by “breaking the original contract between king and people” and declared the throne of England vacant
-Bill of Rights, 1689= William and Mary were required to follow this
-revolution ended the 17 century struggle between king and Parliament


Bill of Rights

- affirmed Parliament’s right to make laws and levy taxes and make it impossible for kings to oppose or do without Parliament by specifying that standing armies could be raised only with consent of the Parliament
- free right to debate for members of Parliament
-laws and taxation with Parliament's consent
-monarch could not be Roman Catholic
-Parliament hold frequent sessions
- Parliament is only dissolved by own consent
-nobody is arrested and imprisoned without legal consent
- foundation for constitutional monarchy


Thomas Hobbes

-lived during English Civil War; surprised by revolutionary upheavals in contemporary England
-state’s claim to absolute authority over its subjects→ the Leviathan
-human nature= self centered and prone to violence
-humans want more power (perpetual and restless desire for power)
-state of nature= human life was “solitary, poor, brutish, and short” → humans were guided, not by reason or moral ideals but by animalistic instincts and a ruthless struggle for self-preservation
-without gov, life is intolerable and civilization is impossible
-gov is needed
-ppl give up personal liberty to attain security and order
-Hobbes didn't like tyranny/anarchy--> rulers should have absolute and unlimited political auhority


John Locke

-ideas inspired Jefferson to write Dec of Ind
-different from Hobbes; argued absolute rule of one man
-lived during the Glorious Revolution
-Two Treatises of Government= political work
-human nature=humans are creatures of reason and goodwill
-"law of nature"= natural rights (life, liberty and property)
-these existed before the creation of gov
-believed ppl should form their own gov to preserve natural rights
-gov is a contract between the ruler and the ppl (ruler has to protect the ppl's rights)
-if the ruler doesn't do their job, the ppl can form another gov


William Shakespeare

-son of prosperous glove maker in Stratford-upon-Avon
-“complete man of the theater”
-playwright, actor, shareholder in the chief company of the time (the Lord Chamberlain’s Company)
-universal genius→ master at English language, involved in codifying a language that was still in transition,
-insight on human psychology
-tragedies and comedies= remarkable understanding of the human condition