Unit 7, Part 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 7, Part 3 Deck (37):

Marie Curie

- French scientist; w. husband Pierre discovered the element radium gave off rays of radiation that came from the atom itself
-atoms= not just hard, material bodies but small worlds containing subatomic particles as electrons and protons that behaved in random and inexplicable fashion
-atoms became central theme in new physics


Albert Einstein

-German born patent officer
-theory of relativity= space and time are not absolute but relative to the observer and both interwoven into what Einstein called s 4D space-time continuum
-space nor time existed independent of human experience
-matter and energy reflected the relativity of time and space
-matter = another form of energy; E=mc2→ each particle of matter if equal to it’s mass times the square velocity of light→key theory in explaining the vast energies in an atom→ atomic age


Friedrich Nietzsche

- glorified irrational; thought western bourgeoise society was decadent and incapable of any real cultural creativity, primarily because of its excessive emphasis on rational faculty at the expense of emotions, passions, and instincts
-reason= played a little role in humans life bc humans were at the mercy of irrational life forces
-believed that Christianity should shoulder much of the blame for Western civilization’s weakening→ crushed humans will and want for life


Sigmund Freud

- Viennese doctor; theories= undermined optimism about rational nature of the human mind
-The Interpretation of Dreams= foundations of psychoanalysis
-humans behavior was strongly determined by the unconscious, earlier experiences, and inner forces, of which pl were oblivious to
-ego and superego resist influence of the id



- a method to resolve a patient's psychic conflict; accomplished through dialogue between the psychotherapist and patient in which the therapist probed deeply into memory in order to retrace the chain of repression all the way back to childhood
-by making conscious mind aware of unconscious and repressed content, the patient's psychic conflict was resolved


social Darwinism

-Darwin’s principle of organic evolution and social order
-Herbert Spencer= British philosopher; used Darwin’s terminology; argued that societies were organisms that evolved through time from a struggle with their environment
-progress came from a struggle for survival as the fit advanced while the weak decline
-Social Status book→ the state should not intervene with this natural process



-opposition to the power of the clergy , especially in political affairs
-ex: French republican gov sub civic training for religious instruction in order to undermine the Catholic Church's control
-1901 Catholic teaching orders were outlawed; 1905 church and state were completely separate


Syllabus of Errors

-Pope Pius IX
-states that it is “an error to believe that the Roman Pontiff can and ought to reconcile himself to, and agree with, progress, liberalism, and modern civilization
condemned nationalism, -socialism, religious toleration, and freedom of speech and press


De Rerum Novarum

-Pope Leo XIII encyclical; 1891; upheld the individual’s right to private property but criticized “naked” capitalism for poverty and degradation in working classes
-condemned Marxist socialism for it’s materialistic and anti religious foundations
-recommended that Catholics form socialist parties and labor unions to help workers



-artistic and literary styles that emerged in the decades before 1914 as artists rebelled against traditional efforts to portray reality as accurately as possible (Impressionism and Cubism) and writers explored new forms



-accepted the material world as real and felt that literature should be realistic
-address social problems; lacked liberal optimism
-pessimistic about Europe’s future and often portrayed characters caught in the grip of forces beyond their control


Emile Zola

-French writer; naturalism
-urban slums and coal field s in N france; showed how alcoholism and different environments affected ppl’s lives
-impressed by Darwin’s emphasis on struggle for survival and importance of environment and heredity
-these ideas were central in his Rougon-Macquart= novels on natural and society history of a family
-thought that an artist should analyze and dissect life as biologist would a living organism


Leo Tolstoy

-Russian; War and Peace= historical background of Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812
-realistic; vivid descriptions of military life and character portrayal
-each person is delineated clearly and analyzed psychologically
-imposed a fatalistic view of history that proved irrelevant in the face of life’s enduring values of human love and trust


Fyodor Dostoevsky

- combined narrative skill and acute psychological and moral observation with profound insights into human nature
-believed that only through suffering and faith could the human soul be purified



-against realism; believed that an objective knowledge of the world was impossible
-external world not real→ it was a collection of symbols that reflected the true reality of the individual human mind
-art should function for its own sake instead of erving, criticizing, or seeking to understand society
-poetry (W B Yeats and Rainer Maria Rilke) ceased to be part of popular culture bc only through a knowledge of the poet’s personal language could one hope to understand what the poem was understanding



-originated in France; artist rejected the studios and museums and went into the countryside to paint nature directly
-daily life; nature; street scenes (Paris); where ppl leisure and work
-sought originality and distinction from part artworks; not conventional
-changing effects of light on objects in nature


Camille Pissarro

-one of Impressionism founders


Claude Monet

-impressionist painter; enchanted with water; paintings catch interplay of light, water, atmosphere
-Impression, Sunrise


Post Impressionism

- kept Impressionist emphasis on light and color but revolutionized it further by paying more attention to structure and form
-sought to use color and line to express inner feelings and produce a personal statement of reality rather than an imitation of objects
-objective reality→ subjective reality; withdraw from artist’s traditional task of depicting the external world
-beginning of modern art


Vincent van Gogh

-Post-Impressionism; tortured and tragic
-art= spiritual experience; interested in color and believed that it could act as its own form of language
-artists should paint what they feel
-Starry Night



-invented in 1830s
-gave artists another reason to reject visual realism
-camera only mirrored reality; artists could create reality
-search for individual expression


Pablo Picasso

-from Spain, in Paris; painted in many styles



- used geometric designs as visual stimuli to recreate reality in the viewer’s mind
-Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (Picasso)= first Cubist painting


Edvard Grieg

-Scandinavian composer; dedicated to Norwegian nationalism
-folk music; Peer Gynt Suite; paved the way for the creation of a national music style in Norway


Claude Debussy

-composer; compositions inspired by visual art
-Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun= inspired by a poem (Afternoon of a Faun) written by his friend, Stephane Mallarme
-didn’t tell a story in music but re-reacted insound the overall feeling of the piece


new imperialism

-revival of imperialism after 1880 in which European nations established colonies throughout much of Asia and Africa


“white man’s burden”

-humanitarian; thought Europeans had a moral responsibility to civilize ignorant ppl
-helped more idealistic ppl rationalize imperialism in their own minds
helped more idealistic ppl rationalize imperialism in their own minds
-helped more idealistic ppl rationalize imperialism in their own minds


economic imperialism

-large capital that bankers and industrialists were getting encouraged them to seek higher rates of profit in underdeveloped areas
- Europeans finance dominate the economic activity of a large part of the world
-not the same as colonial expansion→ businesses invested where it was most profitable, not where their countries had colonial empires
-most of the colonial territory was wasteland→ cost more to administer than it made econ.


Cecil Rhodes

-determined British policy in S Africa
-founded diamond and gold companies→ monopoly on production and enabled him to gain control of territory N of transvaal (Rhodesia)
-champion of British expansion; create British colonies from Cape to Cairo all linked by railroad
-1896= downfall; Gb gov forced him to resign as prime minister of Cape Colony after he conspired to overthrow the Boer gov without GB approval


Boer War

- 1899-1902
-Boers= guerilla tactics→ British had many casualties and expenses (they were not outnumbered)
-GB= brutality against women and children→ public outcry in GB→ antiwar sentiment
-GB won→ but increased military and monetary investment would be needed to maintain the GB empire
-GB policy towards defeated Boers→ conciliatory; rep govs; 1907= Union of S Africa; 1910= fully self governing dominion in the British Empire


David Livingstone

Scottish missionary


Henry M. Stanley

-British-American journalist


King Leopold II

-wanted an empire in Africa; more important than progress= profit
-treated African brutally; condemned for his actions
-created the International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of Central Africa
-engaged Henry Stanley to establish Belgian settlements in Congo
-French also moved into territory north of Congo River


Sepoy Revolt

- Indian troops of the East India Company’s army revolt→ British Parliament transferred the company’s powers directly to gov in London
-Empress of India→ 1876 Queen Victoria; Indians were her colonial subjects


open door policy

-1899; China
- one country would not restrict the commerce of the other countries in its sphere of influence


Boxer Rebellion

-1900-1901; against foreigners; “Boxers”= name given to Chinese who were a part of a secret organization called Society of Harmonious Fists→ aim was to push foreigners out of China
-murdered foreign missionaries, Chinese converts to Christianity, railroad workers, foreign businessmen, German envoy to Beijing
-allied army of British, French, German, Russian, American, and Japanese troops attacked Beijing; restored order; demanded more concessions to Chinese gov
-imperial gov weakened; Sun Yat-sen= overthrew the Manchu dynasty in 1912


Meiji Restoration

- new leaders who controlled emperor started this; transformation of Japan
-After tokugawa shogunate
- centralization, industrialization, and imperialism
-modernize (Westernize)_