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13th century famine and population

-"little ice age"= small drop in overall temps; shortened growing seasons and bad weather (heavy storms and constant rain)
-famine killed 10% of European population in the first half of the 14th century
-famine may have led to chronic malnutrition= increased infant mortality, lower birthrates, and higher susceptibility to disease (malnourished ppl are less able to fight infection)
-movement from overpopulated rural areas to urban locations
-1300= peasant holdings were longer could support a peasant family


the Black Death

-mid 14th century
-first major epidemic disease to strike Europe since the 7th century
-worst natural disaster in European history
-caused economic, social, political, and cultural upheaval
-parents abandon children
-originated in Asia (Mongols+southwest China)
-Mongols brought it to the Black Sea
-reached Europe Oct 1347
-reached southern Italy and southern France and Spain by the end of 1347
-1348= France and the Low Countries and Germany
-1349= England, northern Europe, Scandinavia
-1351= Eastern Europe and Russia
-outbreaks in 1361-1362, 1369,......ever 5 to 6 to 10 to 12 yrs
-ppl began living in the moment, knowing they would soon die (send money/sex/alcohol..........)


bubonic plague

-most common/important (but least toxic) form of plague= bubonic plague
-spread by black rats infested with fleas
-symptoms= high fever, aching joints, swelling lymph nodes, dark blotches (underskin bleeding)
-killed 50-60% of victims


pneumonic infection

-bacterial infection spread to lungs
-severe coughing and bloody spit
-spread by coughing it to someone



-thought that God sent the plague bc of the sins they have done
-whip themselves
-wandered from town to town
-whips= hard knotted leather with little iron spikes
-they began to kill Jews and attack clergy who opposed them
-some thought it was the end of the world, the return of Jesus, and the establishment of a 1000 yr kingdom under his governance
-Pope Clement VI condemned them in Oct 1349 and told authorities to get rid of them
-end of 1350= most flagellant movements were destroyed



-massacres against an ethnic groups (Jews)
-Jews were blamed for the plague (said to have poisoned the water in town wells)
-Jews went to Russia/Poland (king offered protection) or eastern Europe


Result of the Black Death

-economic and social upheaval
-division of society (clergy, nobility, laborers) began to disintegrate
-labor price rose
-prices for things dropped
-power of landlords decreased during the late 14th and early 15th century
-number of peasants declined
-power of peasants improved but not entirely
-manorialism weakening
-peasants faced the same economic hurdles as lords (wage restrictions, taxes---> complaints, revolts)


Statute of Laborers

-attempted to limit wages to preplague levels and forbid the mobility of peasants


the Jacquerie

-1358 peasant revolt
-northern France


peasant revolts

-class tensions
-landed nobles felt they should be more privileged and felt threatened in the postplague world of higher wages and lower prices
-they looked down on peasants
-peasants burned castles and killed nobles
-revolts in cities too
-the rural (country) and urban (city) revolts of the 14th century ushered in an age of social conflict that characterized much of European history


Wat Tyler & John Ball

-well-to-do peasant and preacher
-preached that they shouldn't have dividing classes (we all have the same parents; Adam and Eve)


the English Peasant Revolt of 1381

-wat tyler and john ball
-at first successful (burned down manor houses of aristocrats, lawyers, and government officials, including the archbishop of Canterbury)
-King Richard II (age 15) promised rebels their demands if they went back home
-after the rebels accepted the offer, he arrested hundreds of rebels
-in the end the poll tax was eliminated and most rebels were pardoned


revolt of the ciompi

-1378 Florence
-ciompi= wool workers
-the revolt won the workers concessions from the municipal government (right to form guilds and be represented in the government)
-1382= authorities ended ciompi participation in government


The Hundred Years' War

-war between France and England
-look on pg 316
-Edward III technically had a claim to the French throne but nobles said that the inheritance of the monarchy could not pass through the female line but only through the male line (b/c his mom was the daughter of the king of france)
-basically started when Edward III refused to pay homage to Philip VI for Gascony and the French king seized the duchy. Then Edward III declared war on Philip VI
-Edward wanted the French throne
-knights began to lost importance and power
-peasant foot soldiers with pikes and longbows and crossbowmen were more important
-The Black Prince= son of king Edward III; ravaged land, burned crops and villages and towns, and stole anything of value
-French= suffered
-1396= 20 yr truce
-French win (they had cannons)


King Edward III

-mother= Isabella (nicknamed the she-wolf of France)
-grandfather (father of mother)= Philip IV, king of france
-isabella and her lover overthrew her husband (King Edward II) and ruled England until Edward III could (which happened in 1330)
-technically had a claim to the French throne but nobles said that the inheritance of the monarchy could not pass through the female line but only through the male line
-he became the king of England and the duke of Gascony
-ruled for 50 yrs (1327-1377)


Philip VI

-"so called king of France"
-duke of Valois
-cousin of the Capetians
-chose to be king of France after the last Capetian king died w/o a male heir
-Edward couldn't be king b/c the inheritance to the monarchy has to be through the male line not the female line



-invented by the Welsh
-more rapid speed of fire than crossbow


Battle of Crecy

-French= no battle plan; attack in a disorderly fashion; used knights on horseback; heavy armor= not able to get up when fallen on the ground
-English= longbows; VICTORY;
-the 312


Battle of Poitiers

-the Black Prince vs King John II
-English won
-French king was captured
-this battle ended the first phase of the War


Peace of Bretigny

-French paid a ransom for their king after he was captured in the Battle of Poitiers
-English territories in Gascony were enlarged
-Edward III renounced his claims to the French throne if the french king gives up control over English lands in France


"free companies"

-mercenaries who were no longer paid by the English
-lived off the land by plunder and ransom


Henry V

-1415= took advantage of the French civil war and fights in Paris to invade France (and the weak French king Charles VI)
-after Agincourt, he went on to reconquer Normandy
-forged an alliance with the duke of Burgundy, which led to Charles to agree to the Treaty of Troyes in 1420


Battle of Agincourt

-Henry V
-1,500 French nobles died when the heavily armored French knights tired to fight in the rain and mud
-French lost 6,000 pll
-English only lost 300 men


Treaty of Troyes

-Henry V was to marry Catherine (daughter of Charles VI) and he was recognized as the heir to the French throne
-English were masters of northern France


Charles the dauphin

-eldest son of Charles VI
-disinherited to the French throne by the Treaty of Troyes
-still thought himself as heir to the French throne
-governed the southern section of French lands from Bourges


Joan of Arc

-born in 1412 to a well-to-so peasant family
-peasant woman
-saved the French monarch
-deeply religions
-experienced visions/voices from Sts Michael, Catherine, and Margaret (at age 13)
-claimed that saints in her visions told her to free France and have the dauphin crowned king
-Feb 1429= went to the dauphin's court; persuaded Charles to allow her to accompany the French army to Orleans
-her faith inspired French soldiers and they liberated Orleans (she led the army)
-the Loire valley was freed of the English
-July 1429 in Reims= dauphin was crowned king of France and became Charles VII
-she brought the war to a turning point
-she was captured by Burgundian allies of the English and was turned over to the Inquisition on charges of witchcraft (b/c she dressed in men's clothing
-1431= she was condemned as a heretic and burned at the stake
-1920= she was made a saint of the Roman Catholic Church



-money payments by a vassal to his lord
-substituted for military service
-this way monarchs could hire pro soldiers (more reliable) but left them short of cash


15th century political instability

-lord-vassal relationships became less important and less personal
-there were 2 ppl who claimed the French throne, 2 aristocratic factions fighting for control of England, and 3 German princes struggling to be recognized as Holy Roman Emperor
-monarchs were running out of money b/c they hired mercenaries instead of vassals, whom they gave a home in exchange for military service
-they attempted to raise taxes
-this caused parliamentary bodies to gain more power by asking favors first



-England's highest legislature (House of Lords and House of Commons)
-became more important and developed its basic structure/functions during Edward III's reign
-Edward needed money for the 100 yrs war, so he relied on Parliament to make new taxes
-House of Lords= The Great Council of barons, chief bishops/abbots, aristocrats (position in Par was hereditary)
-House of Commons= representatives of shires and boroughs, less important than lords; began the practice of drawing up petitions that became law if accepted by the king


Richard II

-Edward III's grandson
-ruled from 1377-1399
-early yrs of his reign began with the peasant revolt which ended when he made a compromise
-factions of nobles wanted the throne
-Henry of Lancaster defeated him and killed him
-he became King Henry VI and ruled from 1399-1413
-factional conflict would lead to the War of the Roses



-French Parliament
-consists of the clergy, the nobility, and the Third Estate (everyone else but only in the northern part of France)
-southern had it's own
-it was one of many institutions


gabelle & taille

-tax on salt (G)
-hearth tax (T)
-these were hard on the peasants and middle class


the German monarchy

-failure of the Hohenstaufens ended any chance of centralized monarchial authority
-Germany became a land of hundreds of independent states
-all rulers of different states had some obligations to the German king and Holy Roman Emperor but they still acted independently
-the king/emperor began to be chosen through election, not heredity


the Golden Bull

-stated that 4 princes (the count palatine of Rhine, the duke of Saxony, the margrave of Brandenburg, and the king of Bohemia) and 3 ecclesiastical/clergy rulers (the archbishops of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne) would have the legal power to elect the "King of the Romans" (German King) and have the title as emperor


The states of italy

-failed to make a centralized monarchy by 14th century
-southern italy= naples (ruled by french house of Anjous), and sicily (kings came from the spanish house of Aragon)
-central italy= controled by papacy
-larger, regional states began to grow as larger states expanded at expense of the smaller ones
-end of 14th century= Milan (despotic/tyrannical), Florence, and Venice (Republican) states dominated northern Italy



-mercenary leaders
-sold the services of their band to the highest bidder
-they looted and blackmailed the countryside


Republic of Florence

-free commune
-grandi= patrician class nobles; dominated the free commune
-popolo grasso= "fat ppl"; wealthy merchant-industrialist class
-1293= popolo grasso assumed a domiant role in gov by establishing a new constitution--> Ordinances of Justice (provided for a republican gov controlled by the 7 major guilds of the city, which represented wealthier classes)
-signoria= council of elected priors; controlled executive power
-gonfaoliere= standard-bearer of justice; assisted by a number of councils with advisory and overlapping powers
-popolo minuto= small shopkeepers and artisans; revolted in mid-14th century; won a share in gov
-1382= Florentine gov was controlled by a small merchant oligarchy that manipulated republican gov
-Florence conquered Tuscany and established itself as a major territorial state in northern Italy


Republic of Venice

-rich from commercial activity
-Great Council= source of all political power
-actual power was in the hands of the Great Council and Senate
-Council of Ten= executive power
-end of 14th century= created a commercial empire (colonies and trading posts in eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea; commercial monopolies in Byzantine Empire)



-middle ages= executive head of the republic state
-1300= figurehead


Pope Boniface VIII & Philip IV of France

-pope from 1294-1303
-French King form 1285-1314
-claimed the right to tax French clergy
-Boniface VIII said the clergy could not play taxes to any secular ruler w/o the pope's consent
-Boniface wrote the Unam Sanctum (strongest statement by a pope about the supremacy of the spiritual authority over temporal authority)
-Philip IV captured Boniface and brought him to France b/c he was gonna excommunicated Philip
-pope was rescued but died soon after (of shock?)
-this was considered a victory for Philip for the national monarchy over the papacy


Clement V and Avignon

-Philip IV pushed the cardinals to elect a Frenchman as pope after Boniface died
-Clement V became pope and lived in Avignon instead of Rome, where the pope traditionally lived (all the popes for the next 7 yrs lived in Avignon)
-this led to the decrease of papal power
-the pope was the bishop of Rome and having the pope rule somewhere else was not right
-the change of where the pope ruled was a turning point in the church's attempt to adapt to changing economic and political conditions of Europe
-popes centralized admin by making a special bureaucracy
-popes imposed new taxes on the clergy to make up for the losses of income from the Papal States


Catherine of Siena

-called for the pope to return to Rome
-visited Pope Gregory XI in Avignon
-gave up eating solid food at 23 Yrs of age
-after that she only lived on cold water and herbs, which she sucked on and spit out, and the Eucharist


Pope Gregory XI

-pope from 1370-1378
-was in Avignon
-moved back to Rome in 1377 in response to Catherine of Siena's "call"
-died in 1378 spring
-after he died, ppl of Rome demanded a Roman or Italian as a pope because they feared that the cardinals would chose another Frenchman


Pope Urban VI

-Italian archbishop of Bari
-elected pope after Gregory XI died
- pope from 1378-1389
-elected on Easter Sunday
-eliminated the French majority of cardinals and replaced then with Italian ones
-the French cardinals that withdrew from Romes claimed that the mob forced them to pick Urban and therefore that election was no longer valid


Clement VII

-pope in Avignon that the French cardinals that withdrew from Rome picked b/c they claimed that the mob forced them to pick an Italian pope and the election of Urban VI was not valid
- ruled at the same time at the same time that Pope Urban VI was in Rome


the Great Schism

-when there were 2 popes
-one in Avignon and one in Rome
-France, Spain, Scotland, and southern Italy supported Clement VII
-England, Germany, Scandinavia, and most of Italy supported Urban VI
-French+allies supported Clement; England+allies supported Urban (like 100 Yrs War; England vs France)
-lasted for 40 yrs
-it decreased the power of the Church
-the pope was supposed to be the leader of Christendom (the Christian world)


Marsiglio of Padua

-wrote Defender of the Peace
-argued that the Church was only one element of society and must confine itself only to spiritual functions
-also argued that the church was a community of the faithful in which all authority ultimately taken away from the community
-the clergy don't hold special authority, but only serve to take care of affairs of the church on behalf of all Christians
-final authority resides with the general church council+members, not the pope



-the belief that only a general council of the church could end that schism and bring reform to the church in its "head and members"
-general council has greater power than the pipe and may be able to get rid of him
-since the pope was the only one who could bring together a council and they could not, it was argued that the church hierarchy or secular princes could bring a council together


Council of Pisa

-attempt to end schism
-cardinals from both Avignon and Rome came together
-elected a new pope, Alexander V, and forced the other 2 popes to step down but they refused
-now there are 3 pope


Council of Constace

-Holy Roman Emperor, Sigismund, was in charge
-the 3 popes resigned or were deposed
-Cardinal Oddone Colonna, member of an important Roman family, was elected a the new pope (Marin V)
-Great Schism is over


Martin V

-Cardinal Oddone Colonna
-new pope after the 3 popes stepped down


Religion during and after the Black Death

-decline in importance and respect for the church
-priests didn't do their job of visiting the sick during the Black Death because they were afraid of the plague
-ppl lost faith
-stress in doing good works (charity) to ensure salvation
-importance of purgatory rose (the place where souls went after death to be purged of sins)---> indulgences and prayers and private mass for the dead shortened time spent in purgatory
-pilgrimages and charitable contributions were good works



-the immediate experience of oneness with God


Meister Eckhart

-Dominican theologian, well educated
-sparked a mystical movement in western Germany
-must have union of the soul with God
-this was attainable to all who pursued it wholeheartedly


Modern Devotion

-founded by Gerard Groote (1340-1384)
-religious movement based on Eckhart's teachings?
-stressed meditation and the inner life
-more internal, not external (don't focus on external works)
--ppl have to imitate Jesus and serving the needs of human beings


Brothers of the Common Life and Sisters of the Common Life

-Brothers= followers of Groote
-no monastic vows
-made their own rules
-established schools throughout Germany and the Netherlands
-stressed the message of serving others (imitate Jesus)
-sisters= devoted to education, the copying of books, and weaving


William of Occam

-said that universals (general concepts) were simply names without corresponding reality and that objects perceived by the senses were real (nominalism)
-reason cannot be used to substantiate spiritual truths
-used reason to analyze the observable phenomena of the world
-this had an important impact on the development of physical science by creating support for rational and scientific analysis


Dante Alighieri

-help a high political office in republican Florence but factions conflict led to his exile in 1302
-wrote the Divine Comedy (poem)
-written in Italian vernacular
-one of the greatest literary works of all time
-it is a story of the souls progression to salvation
-3 parts= hell ("Inferno"), "Purgatory", and heaven ("Paradise"
-inferno= Virgil (symbol of human reason) leads Dante but only so far
-purgatory= Beatrice (Dante's true love who represents revelation) is Dante's guide to paradise
-paradise= Beatrice presents Dante to St Bernard (symbol of mystical contemplation) and the saint turns him over to the Virgin Mary b/c grace is necessary to achieve the final step of entering the presence of God (must have the "love that moves the sun and the other stars)


Francesco Petrarca

-known as Petrarch
-one of the greatest European lyric poets
-spent most of time outside the city
-revival of the classics
- primary contribution to the development of Italian vernacular was made in his sonnets
-sonnets were inspired by love for a married lady named Laura (met in 1327)
-his ideal= Laura


Giovanni Boccaccio

-known for his prose
-used Tuscan dialect
-worked for the Bardi banking house in Naples
-fell in love with a noble lady named Fiammetta (his Little Flame)
-this influenced him to write prose romances
-wrote the Decameron
-not in a secular pt of view
-set in the time of the Black Death
-10 ppl flee to a villa outside Florence
-tell stories to pass time (stories refelt the acceptance of basic Christian values)
-hero= seducer of women (not knight or monk or philosopher)


Geoffrey Chaucer

-clear, forceful language and beauty of expression
-wrote the Canterbury Tales
-English vernacular
-it is a collection of stories told by 29 pilgrims who were journeying from London suburbs of Southwark to the tomb of St Thomas a Becket at Canterbury
-stories told to pass time were varied (knightly romances, fairy tales, sts lives, sophisticated satires, crude anecdotes)
-used some of his characters to criticize the corruption of the church in late medieval period (Friar)


Christine de Pizan

-good education
-father was in Charles V's court
-married at 15, husband died when she was 25
-3 children
-best known for the Book of the City of Ladies (1404)
-denounnced the male writers who argued that women needed to be controlled bymen b/c women were prone to evil, unable to learn, and easily swayed (men were antifeminist)
-Reason, Righteousness, and Justice appear to her in a vision
-she argues that women are not evil by nature and they could learn as well as men if they were permitted to attend the same schools
-the book describes past women who were leaders, warriors, wives, mothers, and martyrs for their religious faith
-encourages women to defend themselves from attacks of men



-born into a peasant family
-painted with a new kind of realism (desire to imitate nature)
-later, this was identified as the basic component of classical art
-Giotto's figures were solid/rounded
-placed realistically in relationship to one other and their background and they conveyed a 3D depth
-expressive faces and physically realistic bodies gave the human qualities which spectators could identify
-he didn't have successors


ars morriendi

-the art of dying
-what artistic works came to be based on during and after the time of the Black Death


changes in urban life after the black death

-authorities tried to keep cities cleaner (enact new laws against waste products on the streets)
-bathhouses were closed
-more prostitutes
-tax prostitutes (they had to wear special items of clothing to distinguish them from other women)
-women= more restricted than men
-they were considered as not as important as men (pg 330)
-the death of many men workers during the Black Death opened up job opportunities for women (metalworkers, stevedores)
-girls went to grammar school but stopped there
-boys went to grammar schools and then went to secondary schools....


medical hierarchy

-physicians (usually clergymen)= top; highly trained by not a lot of practice
-four humors= blood (from the heart), phelgm (from the brain),yellow bile (from the liver), black bile (from the spleen); if you were sick, the humors were out of balance
-humans were a microcosm of the cosmos
-look on pg 331
-surgeons= below physicians; performed operations, st broken bones, bleeding patients; knowledge based in practical experience
-midwives= delivered babies
-barber-surgeons= menial tasks (blood letting and simple bone fractures)
-apothecaries= filled herbal prescriptions recommended by physicians; prescribed drugs
-all were not able to help during the plague (didn't understand the plague)
-crisis in medieval medicine and new approaches to health care


inventions in the 14th century

-Giovanni di Dondi= designed the best one; had zodiac signs; stuck on the hour
-installed on towers
-first clock striking 24 hours was in a church in Milan in 1335
-brought a new regularity into the lives of workers and merchants (no more telling work time by daybreak/nightfall or by church bells)
-made it possible to plan one's day and organize on's activities around the striking of bells
-eyeglasses= made it easy to read small handwriting on paper (parchment was expensive)
-parchment was replaced by cheaper paper made from cotton rags but was more subject to insect and water damage
-gunpowder/cannons= cannons could blow up very easily but they and gunpowder were very valuable