Unit 10. Part 2 Flashcards Preview

AP Euro > Unit 10. Part 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 10. Part 2 Deck (47):
1

De-Stalinization

-undo worst features of Stalin’s regime
-permit intellectual freedom
-reduce secret police powers; close some Siberian camps

2

Alexander Solzhenitsyn

-wrote Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich; portrayal of horrors of the forced labor camps

3

Josip Broz Tito

-leader of the Communist resistance movement in Yugoslavia; wanted it to be an independent Communist state

4

Stalinization in Eastern Europe

-1948-1953; instituted Soviet type 5 year plans with emphasis on heavy industry rather than consumer goods
-collectivization of agriculture
-eliminate non-Communists parties and established secret police and military forces

5

Wladislaw Gomulka

-elected by the Polish Communist Party as first secretary of Poland
-declared that Poland had the right to follow its own socialist path
-compromise with Soviets; Poland pledged to remain loyal to the Warsaw Pact and they were allowed to follow socialist path in return

6

Imry Nagy

- new Hungarian leader; declared Hungary a free nation in Nov 1, 1956
-promised free elections→ Khrushchev was not happy
-Red Army invaded Budapest (capital) and Soviets reestablished control over Hungary
-new leader works with Soviets to crush the revolt

7

Christian Democrats

-interested in democracy and in significant economic reforms (not connected to the prewar church-based parties that were advocates of church interests and crusaded against liberal and socialist causes)
-strong in Italy and Germany

8

Fifth Republic

-after the Fourth Republic, which was politically unstable
-created by Charles de Gaulle; created a new constitution that increased the power of the president (chose prime minister, dissolve parliament, supervise defense and foreign policy)
-de Gaulle= president; wanted France to be a great power again; France should play a role in the Cold War→ pulled france out of NATO; invested in nuclear arms race
-centralize economy; cars and armaments

9

nationalization

-gov ownership of something
-Fifth Republic→ nationalization of traditional industries (coal, steel, railroads)--> gov deficits

10

Konrad Adenauer

- leader of the Christian Democrats; served as chancellor from 1949-1963 in Germany
-founding hero of the Federal Republic
-sought respect for W Germany by cooperating with the US and other W European nations

11

German ‘economic miracle’

- resurrection of W Germany’s economy during Adenauer’s chancellorship
-guided by Ludwig Erhard (minister of finance)
-policies of new currency, free markets, low taxes, and elimination of controls→ rapid economic growth

12

welfare state

- GB; nationalization of the Bank of England, coal/steel industries, public transportation, public utilities (electricity and gas)
-new gov enacted National Insurance Act (established social security program, nationalized medical insurance) and National Health Service Act (created a system of socialized medicine)
-forced British to reduce expenses abroad and dismantle the British Empire; reduction of military aid to Turkey and Greece

13

social security

- gov programs that provide social welfare measures such as old-age pensions and sickness, accident, and the disability insurance

14

socialized medicine

- required dr’s and dentists to work in state hospitals, although private practices could be maintained

15

EEC

-European Economic Community; aka the Common Market;
-France, W Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Italy signed Rome Treaty
-eliminated customs barriers for the 6 member nations
-created a large free-trade area protected from the rest of the world by a common external tariff
-promote free trade→ encouraged cooperation and standardization in many aspects of the 6 nations’ economies
-became the world’s largest exporter and purchaser of raw materials

16

consumer society

- Western society that emerged after WWII as the working classes adopted the consumption pattern of the middle class and payment plans, credit cards, and easy credit made consumer good such as appliances and automobiles affordables

17

family allowances

- instituted in some countries to provided minimum level of material care for children
-most provided a fixed amount per child
-to increased the population after the decline suffered during the war

18

suffrage

-the right to vote

19

consumer society

-a society in which the buying and selling of goods and services is the most important social and economic activity.

20

"the pill"

birth control pill

21

Simone de Beauvoir

-women’s liberation, supported equal rights for women and men
-The Second Sex= women were perceived as a second class status
-1970s

22

"permissive society"

-new society of postwar Europe
- society in which social norms become increasingly liberal

23

Timothy Leary

-done research at Harvard on the effects of LSD; became the high priest of hallucinogenic experiences

24

LSD

-lysergic acid diethylamide

25

French Student Revolt of 1968

- one of the many student rebellions against universities that did not teach the realities of the modern age
often sparked by the opposition to the Second Vietnam War

26

Herbert Marcuse

-German American social philosopher
-The One Dimensional Man= argued that capitalism had undermined the dissatisfaction of the oppressed masses by encouraging the consumption of material things
-believed that a small group of students could liberate the masses from the control of the capitalist class

27

Feminism

-women's liberation movement

28

Betty Friedan

-Feminist; didn’t like the idea of a ideal housewife and mother
-The Feminine Mystique= analyzed problems of middle class American women; argued that women were being denied equality with men
-founded National Organization for Women (NOW)
-called for the addition to the US Constitution of an amendment guaranteeing equal rights for women

29

1980 Olympics

-The 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan spurred Jimmy Carter to issue an ultimatum on January 20, 1980 that the United States would boycott the Moscow Olympics if Soviet troops did not withdraw from Afghanistan within one month.

30

SDI

-Strategic Defense Initiative; aka Star Wars
-, proposed U.S. strategic defensive system against potential nuclear attacks

31

Alan Turing

- British mathematician; designed a primitive computer to assist British intelligence in breaking the secret codes of German ciphering machines

32

Grace Hopper

- Navy officer; invented COBOL (computer language that enabled computers to respond to words as wells as numbers

33

E.F. Schumacher

- british economist
-Small is Beautiful= fundamental critique of the dangers of the new science and tech

34

Chernobyl

-in Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1986; nuclear power disaster

35

Green Parties

-ecological awareness in Europe 1970s; preservation of the environment and human rights and equality→ GERMANY

36

Munich Olympics

-1972; 12 Israeli athlete were kidnapped and killed by Palestinian terrorists

37

Baader-Meinhof gang

- terrorist group left wing; Germany; middle class young ppl; denounced injustices of capitalism and supported acts of revolutionary terrorism in an attempt to bring down the system

38

Red Brigades

-terrorist group left wing; Italy
-same as Baader-Meinhof gang

39

-Irish Republican Army

- IRA; terrorist group; wanted to create a separate state; supported from lots of local population sympathetic to their cause
-resorted to vicious attacks against the ruling gov and innocent civilians in N Ireland

40

Guest workers

- foreign workers working temporarily in European countries

41

multiculturalism

- refers to the evolution of cultural diversity within a jurisdiction, introduced by its selection policies and institutionalized by its settlement policies.

42

globalization

- describe the process by which ppls and nations have become more interdependent

43

multinational/transnational corporation

- a company with divisions in more than 2 countries

44

global warming

- the increase in the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect

45

developed nations

-rich nations; N Hemisphere; US, Canada, Germany, Japan
-well organized industrial and agricultural systems; advanced technologies; effective education systems

46

developing nations

- poor nations; S Hemisphere; Africa, Asia, Latin America
-primarily agricultural economies with little technology
-explosive population growth→ food shortages caused by poor soil but also by economic factors (growing crops for developed countries→ profits for large landowners but leaves small farmers with little land on which to grow)

47

NGOs

-nongovernmental organizations
-any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group which is organized on a local, national or international level