Unit 10. Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 10. Part 2 Deck (47):


-undo worst features of Stalin’s regime
-permit intellectual freedom
-reduce secret police powers; close some Siberian camps


Alexander Solzhenitsyn

-wrote Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich; portrayal of horrors of the forced labor camps


Josip Broz Tito

-leader of the Communist resistance movement in Yugoslavia; wanted it to be an independent Communist state


Stalinization in Eastern Europe

-1948-1953; instituted Soviet type 5 year plans with emphasis on heavy industry rather than consumer goods
-collectivization of agriculture
-eliminate non-Communists parties and established secret police and military forces


Wladislaw Gomulka

-elected by the Polish Communist Party as first secretary of Poland
-declared that Poland had the right to follow its own socialist path
-compromise with Soviets; Poland pledged to remain loyal to the Warsaw Pact and they were allowed to follow socialist path in return


Imry Nagy

- new Hungarian leader; declared Hungary a free nation in Nov 1, 1956
-promised free elections→ Khrushchev was not happy
-Red Army invaded Budapest (capital) and Soviets reestablished control over Hungary
-new leader works with Soviets to crush the revolt


Christian Democrats

-interested in democracy and in significant economic reforms (not connected to the prewar church-based parties that were advocates of church interests and crusaded against liberal and socialist causes)
-strong in Italy and Germany


Fifth Republic

-after the Fourth Republic, which was politically unstable
-created by Charles de Gaulle; created a new constitution that increased the power of the president (chose prime minister, dissolve parliament, supervise defense and foreign policy)
-de Gaulle= president; wanted France to be a great power again; France should play a role in the Cold War→ pulled france out of NATO; invested in nuclear arms race
-centralize economy; cars and armaments



-gov ownership of something
-Fifth Republic→ nationalization of traditional industries (coal, steel, railroads)--> gov deficits


Konrad Adenauer

- leader of the Christian Democrats; served as chancellor from 1949-1963 in Germany
-founding hero of the Federal Republic
-sought respect for W Germany by cooperating with the US and other W European nations


German ‘economic miracle’

- resurrection of W Germany’s economy during Adenauer’s chancellorship
-guided by Ludwig Erhard (minister of finance)
-policies of new currency, free markets, low taxes, and elimination of controls→ rapid economic growth


welfare state

- GB; nationalization of the Bank of England, coal/steel industries, public transportation, public utilities (electricity and gas)
-new gov enacted National Insurance Act (established social security program, nationalized medical insurance) and National Health Service Act (created a system of socialized medicine)
-forced British to reduce expenses abroad and dismantle the British Empire; reduction of military aid to Turkey and Greece


social security

- gov programs that provide social welfare measures such as old-age pensions and sickness, accident, and the disability insurance


socialized medicine

- required dr’s and dentists to work in state hospitals, although private practices could be maintained



-European Economic Community; aka the Common Market;
-France, W Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Italy signed Rome Treaty
-eliminated customs barriers for the 6 member nations
-created a large free-trade area protected from the rest of the world by a common external tariff
-promote free trade→ encouraged cooperation and standardization in many aspects of the 6 nations’ economies
-became the world’s largest exporter and purchaser of raw materials


consumer society

- Western society that emerged after WWII as the working classes adopted the consumption pattern of the middle class and payment plans, credit cards, and easy credit made consumer good such as appliances and automobiles affordables


family allowances

- instituted in some countries to provided minimum level of material care for children
-most provided a fixed amount per child
-to increased the population after the decline suffered during the war



-the right to vote


consumer society

-a society in which the buying and selling of goods and services is the most important social and economic activity.


"the pill"

birth control pill


Simone de Beauvoir

-women’s liberation, supported equal rights for women and men
-The Second Sex= women were perceived as a second class status


"permissive society"

-new society of postwar Europe
- society in which social norms become increasingly liberal


Timothy Leary

-done research at Harvard on the effects of LSD; became the high priest of hallucinogenic experiences



-lysergic acid diethylamide


French Student Revolt of 1968

- one of the many student rebellions against universities that did not teach the realities of the modern age
often sparked by the opposition to the Second Vietnam War


Herbert Marcuse

-German American social philosopher
-The One Dimensional Man= argued that capitalism had undermined the dissatisfaction of the oppressed masses by encouraging the consumption of material things
-believed that a small group of students could liberate the masses from the control of the capitalist class



-women's liberation movement


Betty Friedan

-Feminist; didn’t like the idea of a ideal housewife and mother
-The Feminine Mystique= analyzed problems of middle class American women; argued that women were being denied equality with men
-founded National Organization for Women (NOW)
-called for the addition to the US Constitution of an amendment guaranteeing equal rights for women


1980 Olympics

-The 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan spurred Jimmy Carter to issue an ultimatum on January 20, 1980 that the United States would boycott the Moscow Olympics if Soviet troops did not withdraw from Afghanistan within one month.



-Strategic Defense Initiative; aka Star Wars
-, proposed U.S. strategic defensive system against potential nuclear attacks


Alan Turing

- British mathematician; designed a primitive computer to assist British intelligence in breaking the secret codes of German ciphering machines


Grace Hopper

- Navy officer; invented COBOL (computer language that enabled computers to respond to words as wells as numbers


E.F. Schumacher

- british economist
-Small is Beautiful= fundamental critique of the dangers of the new science and tech



-in Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1986; nuclear power disaster


Green Parties

-ecological awareness in Europe 1970s; preservation of the environment and human rights and equality→ GERMANY


Munich Olympics

-1972; 12 Israeli athlete were kidnapped and killed by Palestinian terrorists


Baader-Meinhof gang

- terrorist group left wing; Germany; middle class young ppl; denounced injustices of capitalism and supported acts of revolutionary terrorism in an attempt to bring down the system


Red Brigades

-terrorist group left wing; Italy
-same as Baader-Meinhof gang


-Irish Republican Army

- IRA; terrorist group; wanted to create a separate state; supported from lots of local population sympathetic to their cause
-resorted to vicious attacks against the ruling gov and innocent civilians in N Ireland


Guest workers

- foreign workers working temporarily in European countries



- refers to the evolution of cultural diversity within a jurisdiction, introduced by its selection policies and institutionalized by its settlement policies.



- describe the process by which ppls and nations have become more interdependent


multinational/transnational corporation

- a company with divisions in more than 2 countries


global warming

- the increase in the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect


developed nations

-rich nations; N Hemisphere; US, Canada, Germany, Japan
-well organized industrial and agricultural systems; advanced technologies; effective education systems


developing nations

- poor nations; S Hemisphere; Africa, Asia, Latin America
-primarily agricultural economies with little technology
-explosive population growth→ food shortages caused by poor soil but also by economic factors (growing crops for developed countries→ profits for large landowners but leaves small farmers with little land on which to grow)



-nongovernmental organizations
-any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group which is organized on a local, national or international level