Unit 2 part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2 part 2 Deck (18):
1

Huguenots

-French Calvinists
-artisans, shopkeepers; hurt by the rising prices and rigid guild system;
-merchants and lawyers in provincial towns whose local privileges were little; members of the nobility
-40-50% of French nobility became Huguenots (house of Bourbon, stood next in line of succession and ruled the southern French kingdom of Navarre
-conversion of nobles made Huguenots a political threat to monarchical power
-Calvinist= 10% of population; but they were strong willed and well organized

2

Catherine de’ Medici

-moderate Catholic; looked to religious compromise to defuse political tensions; found that both sides were not willing to compromise

3

Guise family

- possessed loyalty of Paris and large sections of northern and northwestern France through their client-patronage system
-could recruit and pay for large armies; support from papacy and Jesuits who favored the family’s uncompromising Catholic position

4

Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

-August 1572; occurred when Catholic and Calvinist parties reconciled during the marriage of the sister of Charles IX (Valois king) and Henry of Navarre (Bourbon ruler of Navarre, son of Jeanne d’Albret, queen of Navarre, she was responsible for introducing Calvinist ideas into her kingdom)
-Henry= acknowledged leader of the Huguenots; Huguenots traveled to Paris for wedding
-Guise family= convinced king and mom (Catherine de’Medici) that the Huguenot gathering threatened them
-August 24= king’s guards killed Huguenot leaders; unleashed wave of violence; 3 days= Catholic mobs killed Huguenots
-Henry= saved, promised to convert to Catholicism; 3,000 Huguenots died, thousands more were killed in provincial towns

5

War of Three Henries

-1588-1589
-Henry, duke of Guise; Henry III, Henry of Navarre
-Henry (duke)= in pay of Philip II; seized Paris and forced Henry III to make him chief minister
-Henry III= assassinated duke of Guise and joined Henry of Navarre (who returned to Calvinism and next in line to the throne) to crush the Catholic Holy League and retake Paris
-Henry III= assassinated by a monk in 1589; Henry of Navarre took the throne and converted back to Catholicism to appeal to the Catholic French
-Henry of Navarre’s coronation (1594)= French Wars of Religion came to an end
-Edict of Nantes

6

Edict of Nantes

-1589
-acknowledged Catholicism as the official religion of France but guaranteed the Huguenots the right to worship in selected places in every district and allowed them to retained a number of fortified towns for their protection
-Huguenots were allowed to enjoy all political privileges (holding public office)
-political necessity not conviction

7

Philip II of Spain

-1566-1598
-son and heir of Charles V, who left him Spain, Milan, Naples, the Netherlands, and the New World; his reign ushered in an age of Spanish greatness, both politically and culturally
-goals: to advance Spanish power in Europe---to champion Catholicism in Europe----to defeat the Ottoman Turks in the eastern Mediterranean
-BATTLE OF LEPANTO (1571)= defeated Turks with a Spanish and Venetian fleet
-1st major goal= consolidate and secure the lands he inherited from his father
-strict conformity to Catholicism, enforced by aggressive use of the Spanish Inquisition, and the establishment of strong, monarchical authority; not easy
-Spain= he made the monarchy less dependent on the traditional landed aristocracy
-wanted to make Spain dominant power in Europe; depended on prosperous economy fueled by importation of gold and silver from the New World, agriculture, commerce, and industry (textiles, silk, and leather goods)
-Spain= crusade spirit, saw themselves as a nation of ppl chosen to save Catholic Christianity from Protestant heretics
-Spanish Netherlands= richest part of his empire; important to Philip; 17 provinces
-provinces= no real political bond except for a common ruler (Philip, a foreigner who was out of touch with the local situation) → philip wanted to gain more control over Netherlands
-this was strongly opposed by nobles, towns, and provincial states (stood to lose politically if their jealousy guarded privileges and freedoms were weakened) → wanted to stay independent, didn’t want to lose their power
-ppl didn’t like phlip bc he used the money from taxes for Spanish interests
-calvinists= destroy statues and stained glass windows in Catholic Churches; Philip send duke of Alva with 10,000 Spanish and Italian troops to crush rebellion
-permanent tax sales= cut off merchant and commoners, who began to take Calvinist side against Spanish rule→ Council of Troubles (council of blood)= started reign of terror, killed aristocrats

8

William of Nassau (William of Orange)

- prince of Orange; William the Silent; him and Dutch pirates (“sea beggars”) made a resistance
-removed duke of Alva; more peaceful approach
-wanted to unify all 17 provinces→ Pacification of Ghent= all provinces stand together under William’s leadership, respect religious differences, and demand that the Spanish troops be removed
-religious differences= too strong
-duke of Parma= split provinces based on religious differences

9

Union of Utrecht

-7 northern, Dutch speaking states in the Netherlands; Protestant union; determined to oppose Spanish rule
-after _______

10

Union of Arras

-southern provinces; Catholic union
-after ________

11

Thirty Years’ War

-1618-1648
-“last of the religious wars”
-became clear the secular, dynastic-nationalist considerations were far more important; Europe-wide struggle (sometime viewed as part of a larger conflict for European leadership between Bourbon dynasty of France and Habsburg dynasty of Spain and Holy Roman Empire (1609-1659)
-Peace of Augsburg= resolve conflict between German Catholics and Lutherans; they still fought over control
-did not recognize Calvinists; some German states adopted Calvinism
-Protestant Union (Frederick IV) vs Catholic League (Duke Maximilian of the south German state of Bavaria)
-1609= Germany was divided into 2 armed camps in anticipation of religious war
-4 PHASES OF 30 YRS WAR
-Bohemian phase (1618-1625)= religious civil war in Bohemia between the Catholic League led by Emperor Ferdinand II and the Protestant Union led by Frederick V
-Ferdinand’s forces won a series of victories that left the Habsburgs and Catholics in control of Bohemia
-Battle of White Mountain
-The Danish phase (1645-1629)= began when King Christian IV of Denmark (Lutheran) intervened on behalf of the Protestant cause by leading an army into northern Germany
-he made an anti-Habsburg and anti Catholic alliance with the United Provinces and England
-Albrecht von Wallenstein= Ferdinand’s new commander for imperial forces; crushed Protestant forces
-Edict of Restitution
-The Swedish phase (1630-1635)= Protestants, Dutch, and French turned for help to Gustavus Adolphus
-The Franco Swedish phase (The French phase) (1635-1648)= death of Gustavus Adolphus prompted France to intervene on Protestant side
-French, Dutch, and Swedish armies burned German farms and destroyed German commerce
-Battle of Rocroi
-Peace of Westphalia

12

Battle of White Mountain

- 1620, Nov 8
-Ferdinand defeats Frederick and the Bohemian nobles

13

Edict of Restitution

-March 1629
-restored all Catholic properties lost to the Protestants since 1552
-prohibited Calvinist worship

14

Gustavus Adolphus

- king of Sweden; Lutheran, defeated Wallenstein’s army at Battle of Lutzen but he died during battle
-brilliant military strategist, charismatic ruler
-Swedish victories prevented Habsburgs from uniting the German states
-Battle of Nördlingen – Swedes driven out of southern Germany

15

***Battle of Rocroi

-19 May 1643
-French defeat Spain and end Spanish military dominance

16

Peace of Westphalia

-1648
-ends war in Germany (Spanish-French war continues)
-ensured all German states (even Calvinist ones), were free to determine their own religion
-France= gained parts of western Germany, part of Alsace, and Metz, Toul, and Verdun (3 cities)
-Sweden and German states of Brandenburg and Bavaria= gained some territory in Germany
-Austrian Habsburg - didn’t lose much; rulers= diminish
-300 states of HRE= independent
-peace of westphalia= religious and politics are separate; pope was ignored in decisions at Westphalia

17

politiques

- politics before religion

18

The Spanish Armada

-Philip= invade England, thought English would rise up against Elizabeth; thought that the revolt in Netherlands would never be crushed as long as England supported it
-not equipped with right ships of troops philip wanted; DISASTER
-ppl hoped for a miracle; didn’t happen; Spanish fleet= beat up by English; went back to Spain; storms
-defeat of Spanish Armada= guaranteed for the time being that England remained a Protestant country (English and Spanish still fought for 16 more yrs)