Unit 7, Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 7, Part 2 Deck (50):

Thomas Edison

-American; invented light bulb


Alexander Graham Bell

-invented the telephone in 1876


Guglielmo Marconi

- sent the first radio waves across the atlantic in 1901


Gottlieb Daimler

- invented the light engine; key to development of automobiles


Henry Ford

- American; revolutionized car industry with mass production of the model T


Wilbur and Oliver Wright

-US,made the first flight in a fixed-wing plane powered by gasoline engine


protective tariffs

-guaranteed domestic markets for products of their own industries (protect industry from being squashed by a bigger industry before they even get started)



-formed to decreased competition internally
-independent enterprises worked together to control prices and fix production quotas→ retrain competition → reduced prices
-Germany→ bank protect investments by eliminating anarchy of competition



-larger factories






-type of employment in which a worker is paid a fixed piece rate for each unit produced or action performed regardless of time
-poorly paid, long hours; poorest paid jobs= “slop work”
-women had no choice but to work in these places


white collar jobs

-service jobs
- belonging or pertaining to the ranks of office and professional workers whose jobs generally do not involve manual labor or the wearing of a uniform or work clothes
-increase demand ans decrease in male workers= more women workers
-clerks, typists, secretaries
-need education → more teachers; modern hospital services→ increase in nurses
-escape from “dirty work” of the lower class
-shift in women's work from factories to white collar; no real increase


Josephine Butler

- objected laws that punished women but not men who suffered from venereal disease
-“shrieking sisters”= discussed sexual matters in public
-successful in gaining the repeal in 1886


Wilhelm Liebknecht and August Bebel

-Marxist leaders of the Social Democratic Party in Germany


Social Democratic Party

-it espoused revolutionary Marxist rhetoric while organizing itself as a mass political party competing in elections for Reichstag (German Parliament)
-once in Reichstag; SDP delegates work to enact legislation to improve condition of the working class
-gov tried to stop this; it only grew more
1912= received 4 million votes; largest single party in Germany


Jean Jaures

-leader of French socialism; independent
-looked to the French revolutionary tradition rather than Marxism to justify revolutionary socialism


evolutionary socialism (revisionism)

-rejection of authoritarian rule and violent revolution
-believed that in time the capitalist system would wither away and that ppl (democratically elected reps) would replace capitalist social and economic system with a socialist one


Edward Bernstein

-evolutionary socialist; member of German SDP
-argued that some of Marx’s ideas were wrong→ capitalist system was not broken down→ the middle class was expanding to declining (Evolutionary Socialism book)
-discarded Marx’s idea about class struggle and revolution
-workers must work together in mass political parties with other advanced elements in a nation to bring change
-evolution would achieve goal of socialism
-German and French socialism leaders (and Second International) condemned evolutionary socialism as heresy and opportunism→ but many socialist parties (German SDP) had revolutionary slogans but had a gradualist approach


trade unions

-unions formed by workers
-to improve working conditions



- a political theory that holds that all govs and existing social institutions are unnecessary and advocates a society based on voluntary cooperation
-prominent in less industrialized and less democratic areas
-true freedom can only be achieved by abolishing that state and all existing institutions
-early anarchists believed that ppl were inherently good but had been corrupt by state and society
-some countries went radical


Michael Bakunin

-Russian anarchist
-Russian; believed that small groups of well-trained, fanatical revolutionaries could perpetrate so much violence that the state and all its institutions would disintegrate→ anarchist golden age
-died 1876→ anarchist revolutions used assassination as primary instrument or terror (like a Russian tsar in 1881, president of the French Republic in 1894, the king of Italy in 1900, and the US president in 1901)


The Public Health Act of 1875

-Britain; prohibited construction of new buildings without running water and internal drainage system


Housing Act of 1890

-Britain; empowered local town councils to collect new taxes and construct cheap housing for the working class
-first communities to take advantage of new powers= London and Liverpool
-similar something in Germany
-failed to do much to meet housing needs or working class



-wealthy elite; industrialists; bankers, merchants
-aristocrats and plutocrats= become wealthy upper middle class; bought nice houses; country living
-common bonds


cult of middle class domesticity

-true womanhood
-women's natural job was to work in the home


universal elementary education

-after 1870= functions of state were extended to include development of mass education in state run systems
-most W govs began to offer at least primary edu to girls and boys (most= not optional)
-states assume responsibility for quality of teachers → teacher training schools
-liberals thought that education was important to personal and social improvements and sought to teach Christian education with moral and civic training based on secular values
-no more common sense for machines→ need for more knowledge/educated ppl→ more possibilities for jobs
-mass compulsory education instilled patriotism and nationalized the masses→ opportunities for greater national integration


mass leisure

-not during work; forms of leisure that appeal to large numbers of ppl in society, including the working class
-music; dance; sports; tourism; amusement parks


mass society

- society in which the concerns of the majority-the lower classes play a prominent role
-characterized by extension of voting rights, and improved living standard of living for the lower class, and mass education


mass politics

ーW European states; a political order characterized by mass political parties and universal males and (eventually) female suffrage


Reform Act of 1884

- gave vote to all men who paid regular rents or taxes; enfranchised agricultural workers
-added another 2 million male voters to electorate
-women still denied right to vote


home rule

-self government for having separate Parliament but not complete independence


Paris Commune

-March 26, 1871= radical republicans formed independent republican gov against the French gov after France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War


The Third Republic

-French gov from 1870-1940
-after second empire
-parliamentary republic
-marked by social stability (except for the Alfred Dreyfus affair), industrialization, and establishment of a professional civil service


General Georges Boulanger

- popular military officer; attracted public attention of all ppl who didn’t like Third Republic (monarchists, Bonapartist, aristocrate, nationalists) who favored war against Germany (revenge)
-thought he would “save France” by a coup d’etat; 1889= lost nerve; fled


the Generation of 1898

-group on young intellectuals; called for political and social reforms
-Liberals and Conservatives attempted to enlarge electorate and win masses’ support for policies
-reforms didn’t reduce the unrest; growth of industrialization→ workers become radical socialists and anarchists
-revolt in Barcelona 1909= made clear that reform would not come easy (Catholic Church; large landowners, army= tied to conservative social order



-Bismarck’s attack on the Catholic Church; “struggle for civilization”
-secularity and reducing the role and power of the Roman Catholic Church in Prussia


nationalities problem

-Austria Hungary= problem of minorities; ethnic Germans govern Austria but felt threatened by Czechs, Poles, and other Slavic groups; difficulties dealing with this
-try to solve it by Magyarization→ Magyar language imposed on all schools; it was the only language that could be used by gov and military officials


Alexander III

-son of Alexander II (after assassination of Alexander II by populists)= thought reform was a mistake
-expand powers of secret police
-advocates of constitutional monarchy and rev groups were persecuted
-martial law
-decreased power of zemstvos
-radical Russification program


Emmeline Pankhurst

-founded Women’s Social and Political Union in 1903; enrolled mostly middle and upper class women; radical
-realized the value of the media and used unusual publicity stunts to call attention to demands
-radical--> pelted gov officials with eggs; chained themselves to lampposts; smashed windows of dept store; burned railroad cars went on hunger strikes in jail



-a woman seeking the right to vote through organized protest.
-minority; diminutive


anti Semitism

-prejudice against Jews; blamed Jews for corruption of German culture
-Karl Lueger



-organized massacres



- Jewish nationalist movement; focus= Palestine
-many Jews thought that Palestine (the ancient Israel) had long been the land of their dreams
-Jews wanted national independence (like the Germans and Italians)


Theodor Herzl

-key figure in the growth of political Zionism
-The Jewish Stature= said that “Jews who wish it will have their state”


Labour Party

-1900= reps of the trade unions and Fabian Socialists worked together to form the Labour Party
-It grew out of the trade union movement and socialist political parties of the nineteenth century


David Lloyd George

-orator from Wales; moved by misery of Welsh coal miners; served as chancellor of Exchequer from 1908-1915
-increased tax burden on the wealthy class
-he was forced to confront the power of the House of Lords, who opposed his effort to reform tax



- transformismo; system in which old political groups were transformed into new gov coalitions by political and economic liberty


The Dreyfus affair..

-Alfred Dreyfus (Jew and captain)= found guilty by secret military court of selling army secrets; condemned to life in prison on Devil’s Island
-another officer (Catholic) was the traitor but he wasn’t held on trial bc the army (Catholic and aristocratic officers)
-public outrage= new trial→ Dreyfus was pardoned 1899; 1906= fully acquitted
impact went -everywhere→ France= change in gov


Revolution of 1905

-wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire
-Jan 9 1905= procession of workers went to the Winter Palace in St Petersburg to present a petition of grievances to the tsar
-troops opened fire in the peaceful demonstration; killed lots of ppl
-“Bloody Sunday”--> incite ppl to form strikes and form unions
-zemstvos demanded parliamentary; ethnic groups revolted; peasants burned landowners houses



-Oct 1905= gov capitulated → October Manifesto= granted civil liberties and agreed to create a legislative assembly
-nicholas II