Unit 6, Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 6, Part 2 Deck (51):


-based on belief that people should be as free from restraint as possible
-became more significant as the Industrial Revolution made rapid strides bc the developing industrial middle class largely adopted the doctrine as it’s own
-different opinions among liberals
-economic liberal= laissez faire
-political liberalism=protection of civil liberties/basic rights of all ppl (equality before the law, freedom of assembly, speech, and press, and freedom of arbitrary arrest)


Thomas Malthus

-argued that population, when unchecked, increases at an arithmetic rate while the food supply correspondingly increased at a much slower arithmetic rate→ result= overpopulation, starvation
-misery and poverty are inevitable results of the law of nature; no gov should interfere with that


David Ricardo

-Principles of Political Economy
-“iron law of wages”


“iron law of wages”

- increase population→ more workers→ wages fall below subsistence level→ misery and starvation→ reduce population
-number of workers decline→ wage rise→ encourage workers to have larger families→ REPEAT
-raising wages would be pointless bc it would accomplish little but repeat in this cycle


John Stuart Mill

-argued for an absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjects that needed to be protected from both gov censorship and the tyranny of the majority
-supporter of women’s rights
-On the Subjection of Women (wrote with his wife, Harriet Taylor)
-subordination of other sex was wrong
-differences between men and women were not due to differences in nature but to social practices
-with equal education, women could achieve as much as men






-human cooperation was superior to the competition that characterized early industrial capitalism
-product of political theorists or intellectuals who wanted to introduce equality in to social conditions


utopian socialism

- favored equality in social and economic conditions and wished to replace private property and competition with collective ownership and cooperation
-against private property and competitive spirit of early industrial capitalism
-thought of a better environment for humanity could be achieved
-kinda unrealistic


Charles Fourier

- proposed the creation of small model communities called phalanstery



-self containing cooperatives, each consisting ideally of 1,620 ppl) → ppl in there live together and work together for mutual benefit
-work assignments would be rotated frequently to relieve workers from undesirable tasks
-unable to find financial backing for this→ untested


Robert Owen

-British cotton manufacturer; believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment
-New Lanark, Scotland= successful in transforming a squalid factory into a flourishing, healthy community
-women’s rights


Louis Blanc

-Frenchman; social problems could be solved by gov assistance
-called for the establishment of workshops that would manufacture goods for public sale
-tate would finance these workshops, but the workers would own and operate them
-women believed that reordering society would help women


Flora Tristan

-utopian socialist; attempted to foster a utopian synthesis of socialism and feminism
-preached the need for the liberation of women
-advocated the application of Fourier's ideas to reconstruct both family and work
-thought that absolute equality was the only hope to free the working class and transform civilization


The July Ordianances

-Charles X--> July 26, 1830
-imposed rigid censorship on the press, dissolved the legislative assembly, and reduced the electorate in preparation for new elections


The July Revolution

-July 1830
-barricades in paris; provisional gov led by a group of moderate, propertied liberals was formed and appealed to Louis-Philippe to become constitutional king of France→ new monarchy



-duke of Orleans, cousin of Charles X; became new constitutional king of France after July Revolution
-called the bourgeoisie monarch bc political support for his rule came from upper middle class
-dressed like middle class
-constitutional changes that favored interests of the upper bourgeoisie were instituted
reduced financial -qualifications for voting but still high (only wealthy ppl)


The Party of Movement

- led by Adolphe Thiers; favored ministerial responsible, the pursuit of an active foreign policy, and limited expansion of franchise


The Party of Resistance

-led by Francois Guizot; believed that France had finally reached the perfect form of gov and needed no further institutional changes
-after 1840; the Party of Resistance dominated the Chamber of Deputies; Guizot cooperated with Louis-Philippe in suppressing ministerial responsibility and pursuing a policy favoring the interests of the wealthier manufacturers and tradesppl


The Reform Act of 1832

-gave recognition to the changes wrought in British life by the Industrial Revolution
-disenfranchised 56 rotten boroughs and enfranchised 42 new towns and cities and reapportioned others
-gave new industrial urban cities some voice in gov
-property qualification for voting
-primarily benefited the upper-middle class
-didn't change House of Commons


The Poor Law of 1834

-based on the theory that giving aid to the poor and unemployed only encouraged laziness and increased the number of paupers
-tried to fix this by making paupers so wretched they would choose to work
-those unable to support themselves were crowded together in workhouses where living and working conditions were intentionally miserable so that ppl would be encouraged to find profitable employment


The Revolutions of 1848

-Italian States


the Second Republic

- unicameral legislature of 750 elected by universal male suffrage for 3 yrs and a president, also elected to universal male suffrage


Frankfurt Assembly

-purpose was to fulfill a liberal and nationalist dream- the preparation of a constitution for a new united Germany
-dominated by well educated, articulate, middle class delegates (professors, lawyers, bureaucrats)
-claimed to be the gov of all of Germany
-attempt of the german liberals ar Frankfurt to create a German states failed



-19th-century movement for Italian unification that culminated in the establishment of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861
- ideological and literary movement that helped to arouse the national consciousness of the Italian people


Giuseppe Mazzini

-risorgimento; dedicated Italian nationalist who founded an organization known a Young Italy in 1831


Young Italy

-political movement in Italy
-goal= creation of united Italian republic



-French police 1829
-visible on Paris streets; blue uniforms= recognizable; armed with white cane by day and saber by night; civilian, not military body;



-British police
-named after Sir Robert Peel, who introduced that created the force
-primary goal= prevent crime; civil authorities found that they can be used to impose order on working class urban inhabitants→ improved working conditions



-state-financed police; modeled after British; put in Berlin
-began as a civilian body; became more organized on military lines and used for political purposes (swords, pistols, brass knuckles)


***The London Mechanics’ Institutes

-established in britain; approach to “dangerous classes”
-reformers formed institutes in instruct working classes in applied sciences in order to make them more productive members of society


The Communist Manifesto

-written by Marx and Engels
-statement of their ideas for the League; encouraged revolution of working class
- starts with the statement that the history of all hitherto the existing society if the history of class struggles (oppressor and oppressed)
-bourgeosie vs proletariat
-proletariate win and make a dictatorship with a classless society


Karl Marx

-worked for liberal bourgeoisie newspaper; suppressed bc of radical views
- learned about “wage slavery”--> The Conditions of the Working Class in England
-combo of French (socialism and idea that rev can restructure society) and German ideas (dialectic)
-Marx disagrees with Engel's dialectic; thinks that history is determined by material forces


Friedrich Engels

- son of wealthy German cotton manufacturer
-joined Communist League with Marx
-dialectic= everything revolves, and all change in history is the result of conflicts between an antagonistic elements
-history is determined by ideas manifesting themselves in historical force
-Marx disagrees


bourgeosie vs proletariat

-Communist Manifesto
-workers overthrow bourgeois masters ; proletariat form a dictatorship to reorganize the means of production→ classless society emerges→ progress of science; tech, and industrusty and greater wealth for all ppl


First International

- formed in 1864 by British and french trade unionists; served as an umbrella organization for working-class interests
-Marx devoted much time to this
-internal dissension in the ranks damaged it



-intellectual movement; challenge Enlightenment’s preoccupation with reason in discovering truth
-tried to balance the use of reason by stressing the importance of intuition; feeling; emotion, and imagination as sources of knowledge


Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

-German writer
-The Sorrows of the Young Werther; sought freedom in order to fulfill himself
-believed in his own worth through inner feelings but his love for a girl who didn’t live him back made him commit suicide



-an interest in the unique traits of each person; important characteristic of Romanticism
-desire to follow their inner→ led them to rebel against middle class conventions


***Grimm Brothers

- German; collected and published local fairy tales (like Hans Christian Andersen in Denmark)


***neo-Gothic archtecture



Walter Scott

- novels; bestsellers; Ivanhoe (clash between Saxon and Norman knights in medieval England)


Mary Shelley

-novels; Frankenstein; reflects that ppl sought the unusual in their own lives by pursuing extraordinary states of experience in dreams, nightmares, frenzies, and suicidal depression; or experimenting with cocaine, opium, and hashish to produce altered states of consciousness


Percy Bysshe Shelley

-atheist; wanted to reform the world; Prometheus Unbound (1820)
-portrait of revolt of human beings against the laws and customs that oppress them


Lord Byron

-dramatized himself as the melancholy Romantic hero that he had described in Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage
-participated in the movement of Greek independence and died in Greece fighting the Ottomans


William Wordsworth

-poet; wrote about nature (love of nature); his experience of nature was almost mystical as he claimed to receive authentic tidings of invisible things
-though nature contained a mysterious force that the poet could perceive and learn from
-nature served as a mirror into which humans could look to learn about themselves
-nature was alive and scared



- a doctrine that equates God with the universe and all that’s in it


Caspar David Friedrich

-German painter; occupation with God and nature
-painted landscapes with an interest that transcended the mere presentation of natural details
-feeling of mystery and mysticism
-for him, nature was a manifestation of divine life (Man and Woman Gazing at the Moon)
-artistic process depended on one’s inner vision


Joseph Malford William Turner

-J.M.W. Turner; prolific artist; English; made more than 20,000 paintings, drawings, and watercolors
-didn’t idealize nature or reproduce it with realistic accuracy→ wanted to convey its moods by using a skilled interplay of light and color to suggest natural effects
-allowed his objects to melt into their surroundings


Eugene Delacroix

-French Romantic artist; self taught; fascinated by exotic and passion for color
-The Death of Sardanapalus= use of light and interrelated color; portrayal of the last Assyrian king; criticized for garishness
-“a painting should be a feast to the eye”
-daring use of color


Ludwig van Beethoven

-one of the greatest composers of all time; music HAD to reflect his deepest inner feelings
-bridge from classical era to Romanticism
-studied under Haydn in Vienna; music capital of the world; lived there
-Third Symphony (Eroica)= meant for Napoleon; broke through the elements of Romanticism in his use of uncontrolled rhythms to create dramatic struggle and uplifted resolutions
-became deaf; wrote 9th Symphony when deaf


Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand

-Frenchman; Genius of Christianity (1802) labeled the “Bible of Romanticism”
-his defense of Catholicism was based not on historical, theological, or even rational grounds but largely on Romantic sentiment
-Catholicism reflected the harmony of things
-cathedrals brought one into the very presence of God; awe