Unit 6: Europe 1815-1850 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 6: Europe 1815-1850 Deck (54):


-ideology based on tradition and social stability that favored the maintenance of established institutions organized religion, and obedience to authority, and resisted change, especially abrupt change (revolution)


Edmund Burke

- Reflections on the Revolution in France
-reaction to French Rev, especially its radical republican and democratic ideas
-society was a contract
-state was a partnership between those “who are living, those who are dead, and those who are to be born”
-no one can destroy this partnership→ each generation has a duty to preserve and transmit it to the next
-didn’t like violent overthrow of gov→ didn’t reject all the changes though
-sudden change was unacceptable but that didn’t mean that there should never be gradual ot evolutionary improvements


Joseph de Maistre

-conservative; French
-most influential spokesman for counterrevolutionary and authoritarian conservatism
-accepted restoration of hereditary monarchy (divinely sanctioned institution)
-only abs monarch could guarantee “order in society” and avoid chaos generated by movements like the French Rev


Concert of Europe

- means to maintain new status quo that was constructed
-out of reaffirmation of Quadruple Alliance in Nov 1815
-renewed commitment against attempt of restoration of Bonapartist power and agreed to meet periodically in conferences to discuss their common interests and examine measures to keep the ease in Europe
-4 congresses between 1818-1822


principle of intervention

-great powers of Europe had the right to send armies into countries where there were revolution to restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones
-GB didn’t agree; argued that the Quad Alliance was never intended to interfere in internal affairs, except France


Simon Bolivar (Venezuela) and Jose de San Marina (Argentina)

-leaders of independence movement
-attended European universities, where they imbibed the ideas of the Enlightenment
-resented domination of trade by Spain and Portugal


Simon Bolivar

-GW of Latin America; wanted to free his ppl from Spanish control
-“liberator” of Venezuela 1813
-liberated Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru


Jose de San Marina

-military in Spanish army
-abandoned military career to pursue liberation movement
-Argentina as already free of Spanish control but he believed that the Spaniards must be removed from all of S America of any nation was to remain free
-Battle of Chacabuco 1817= San Martin’s troops in Chile surprised Spaniards
-excited to work with Bolivar but disappointed
-left S America for Europe; 1850= died outside Paris


The Greek Revolt

- Greeks revolted against Ottoman Turkish masters in 1821
-Greeks= subject to Muslim control for 4 yrs but allowed to keep language and Greek Orthodox faith
-revival of Greek national sentiment at beginning of 19th century→ desire for liberation
-soon transformed into a noble cause by outpouring of European sentiment for Greeks struggle
-1827= GB and French fleet defeated Ottoman armada
-1828= Russia declared war on ottomans


Treaty of Adrianolpe

-1829; ended Russian-Turkish war
-Russian recieved a protectorate over 2 provinces
-Ottomans agreed to allow Russia, France, and GB to decide the fate of Greece



-ministers largely dominated gov until 1830
-little desire to change the existing political and electoral system
-dominated by members of landed class



- beginning to receive support from new industrial middle class
-dominated by members of landed class


Corn Law of 1815

-Tory gov response to falling agricultural prices
-measure that imposed very high tariffs on foreign grain
-tariffs benefited landowner → bread prices= rose a lot; harder working class conditions
-mass protests→ Peterloo Massacre


Peterloo Massacre

-mass protest gone wrong; cavalry attacked crown of 60,000 ppl @ St Peter’s Fields in Manchester in 1819→ 11 ppl died
-led Parliament to take more repressive measures



-criticized the king’s willingness to compromise and retain so many features of the Napoleonic era
-hoped to return to monarchical system dominated by privileged landed aristocracy and restore Catholic Church to it’s former position of influence


ministerial responsibility

-ministers of the king were responsible to the legislature



-student societies dedicated to the fostering of the goal of a free, united Germany
-idea/motto= “Honor, Liberty, Fatherland”
-inspired by Friedrich Ludwig Jahn→ organized gymnastic societies during Napoleonic wars to promote regeneration of German youth


Karlsbad Decrees of 1819

- closed the Burschenschaften, provided for censorship of the press and placed the universities under close supervision and control
-maintained conservative status quo


Northern Union

- composed of young aristocrats who served in Napoleonic wars and became aware of world outside Russia; intellectuals alienated by censorship and lack of academic freedom in universities
-favored establishment of constitutional monarchy and abolition o serfdom
-death of Alexander I→ opportunity


****Decembrist Revolt

-December 1825
-Alexander's (former Russian king, now dead) brother Constantine was heir to the throne but rennounced his claims in favor of his bro Nicholas
-military leaders of the northern Union rebelled against the accession of Nicholas


***The Industrial Revolution

-made GB the wealthiest country in the world (1850); spread to New World



-material wealth used or available for use in the production of more wealth→ for investment in new industrial machines and factories that were needed to house them


flying shuttle

-sped up process of weaving on a loom → double output


spinning jenny

- James Hargreaves; enabled spinners to produce yarn in greater quantities


water frame

- Richard Arkwright; spinning machine; powered by water or horse;



-Samuel Compton; combined aspects of the water frame and spinning jenny; increased yarn production even more


power llom

- Edmund Cartwright; 1787; allowed weaving of of cloth to catch up with the spinning of yarn


James Watt

-created steam engine
-engine steamed by steam that could pump water from mines 3 times as quickly as previous engines
-created rotary engine= turn a shaft and drive machinery
-steam power= applied to spinning and weaving cotton
-fired by coal→ didn’t need to be located near rivers→ flexibility of choice of location for entrepreneurs
-indispensable; tireless (unlike horses)


Cort Process

-coke was used to burn away impurities in pig iron (product of smelting iron ore with coke) to produce an iron of high quality called wrought iron (lower carbon content; malleable and able to withstand strain)
-boom in British iron industry
-high quality wrought iron→ widely used metal until production of cheaper steel in 1860s
-new transportation



- start in mining business
-wooden rails→ cast iron rails (still dependent on horsepower)--> mining and industrial districts
-production of steam engine→ radical transformation of railways


Stephenson's Rocket

-George Stephenson and son
-used on the first public railway line (1830)
-16 miles per hour


Great Exhibition of 1851

-world’s first industrial fair; displayed products created by the industrial Rev
at the Crystal Palace
-represented imperial power→ goods from India with exhibits of cotton, tea and flax; silk, jewels, shawls, elephant canopy
-domination over nature too (trees)
-displayed Britain’s wealth to the world; symbol of British success
-divine will (accomplish the will of God)
-some ppl thought they were a wasteful and ridiculous excess of the labor intensive production practice of the East, which would not compare to enlightened British labor prices


Crystal Palace

-Kensington in London; made entirely out of glass (tribute to British engineering skills





joint stock investment bank?????



Ireland's Great Hunger

-most oppressed areas in Europe
-cultivation of the potato= gave Irish peasants a basic staple that enabled them to survive and expand
-depend on potato to survive
-ppl started to marry earlier and have kids earlier→ population growth (doubled)
-1845= potato crop was struck with fungus that turned the potatoes black
-more the 1 mill ppl died of starvation; 2 mil ppl emigrated to US or Britain
-emigration= most came from Ireland or Germany where peasant life was reduced



- the outer ring of the city→ individual houses and gardens


Poor Law Commission

-detailed reports
-investigators were struck by physically and morally debilitating effects of urban life on the poor
-young working class men were shorter and skinnier→ more prone to disease
-alarmed by moral consequences of these living conditions (prostitution, crime, sexual immorality) → effects of horrible living conditions


Edwin Chadwick

- one of the best of a new breed of urban reformers
-wanted to eliminated poverty and squalor in metropolitan areas
-Report on the Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain= research about living conditions and their causes
-it was because of atmospheric impurities produced by decomposing animal and vegetable substances, by damp and filth, and close overcrowding places everywhere
-need to fix this (modern sanitary reforms→ efficient sewers and supply of piped water)
-6 yrs later→ Britain’s first Public Health Act created the National Board of Health empowered to form local boards that would establish modern sanitary systems
-ppl were willing to support bc they feared cholera



-middle class
-existed since middle ages-


***Barclays and Lloyds



new elite

-wealthiest members of bourgeois (have estates, and social respectability) merge with old elite


working class

-mix of groups
-eventually form a industrial proletariat
-artisans/craftsppl= largest group of urban workers during first half of 19th
-some crafts ppl (build coaches, clock making) formed a kind of aristocracy of labor and earned higher wages than others
-artisans= not factory workers; traditionally organized in guilds (apprentices)
-guilds losing power, especially in industrialized countries
-artisans were scared of losing to industries (make things cheaper), so they went against it
-industrialist welcomed the decline of skilled craftsppl
-servants= large group of urban workers (London and Paris) → many from countryside; dependent


bad air

gas fumes from coal mines


child labor

-work in fields, carding, or spinning
-delicate for spinning
-small=crawl under machines to get loose cotton
-VERY low wages
-worked 12-15 hrs per day; 6 days a week in cotton mills
-pauper apprentices= orphans or abandoned children who wound up in local parishes
-Parliament eventually fixed some of the problems
-only affected child labor in textile factories and mines, not small workshops or nanofactory trades


****cyclical depressions

-depression that comes and goes


Combination Acts

-1799 and 1800
-outlaw associations of workers
-didn’t prevent the formation of trade union
-1824= accepted the argument of some members that they had formed unions
-unions are tolerated but other legislation enabled authorities to keep close watch over activities


trade unions

-formed by skilled workers in a number of new industries
-association of workers in the same trade, formed to help members get better wages, benefits, and working conditions
-to preserve their own worker’s position by limiting entry to their trade
-to gain benefits from other employers
-win improvements


Robert Owen

-believed in the creation of voluntary associations that would demonstrate to others the benefits of cooperative rather than competitive living
-ideas appeals to trade union leaders


Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

-formed feb 1934
-national federation of trade unions
-primary purpose= coordinated a general strike for the 8hr working day
-by summer of 1934= lack of real working-class support led to the federation's total collapse→ union movement reverted to trade unions for individual crafts
-largest and most successful= Amalgamated Society of Engineers in 1850
-practical gains



- Luddites= skilled craftsppl in the Midlands and N England who attacked the machines that they believed threatened their livelihoods in 1812
-attacks failed
-eruption of feeling against unrestrained industrial capitalism



-first important political movement of working men organized during the 19th century
-aim= achieve political democracy
-Chartism attempted to encourage change through peaceful, constitutional means (but there was a threat of force)
-women participated (female sections) but fought for political rights for their husbands, not themselves (Chartist platform didn’t include the right of women to vote)
-isn't pose a threat


factory acts

-1802-1819; limited labor of children between 9 and 16 years old to 12 hours a day
-employment of children under 9 yrs old was forbidden
-specified that children were to receive instruction in reading and arithmetic during working hours
-only applied to cotton mills, not factories or mines (where some of the worst abuses were)
-no provision was made for enforcing the acts through a system of inspection
-1833= all factories were included
-children between ages 9 and 13 could only work 8 hours a day; ages 13-18 work 12 hours
-factory inspectors were appointed with the ability to fine those who broke the law


Ten Hours Act

-1847; reduced the workday for children between ages 13-18 to ten hours
-women were included in the 10 hour limit