Unit 10: Postwar Europe Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 10: Postwar Europe Deck (41):

Cold War

-the state of political hostility that existed between the Soviet bloc countries and the US-led Western powers from 1945 to 1990; stemmed from military, political, and ideological differences, especially between the Soviet Union and the USA
-dominated European and world politics for more than 40 years


Tehran Conference

- The Big Three (Stalin, FDR, and Churchill) met at Tehran (capital of Iran) to decide the future course of the war; Nov 1943
-`What should be the final attack on Germany→ American-british invasion of the Continent through France; spring 1944


Yalta Conference

- Feb 1945
-Soviet Union wanted a buffer to protect it from future Western aggression
-Declaration on Liberated Europe= assis liberatedEuropean nations in the creation of the democratic institutions of their own choice
-United Nations
-Germany must surrender unconditionally; divided up into 4 occupation zones
-Poland→ provisional govs with Lublin Poles (Polish poles living in exile) and London poles (non-Communists exiled in Britain)


Potsdam Conference

-July 1945; Truman demands free elections throughout eastern Europe; Stalin opposed
-Stalin wanted absolute military security→ only present in Communist states in E Europe→ is there are free elections, there might be hostile gov to the Soviets


United Nations

- an international organization formed in 1945 to increase political and economic cooperation among member countries


Vyacheslav Molotov

-Russian foreign minister; referred to the Americans as insatiable imperialists and war mongering groups of adventurers


iron curtain

- ordered by Churchill; descended across the continent, dividing Germany and Europe into 2 hostil camps


Truman Doctrine

-said that the US would provide financial aid to countries that claimed that they were threatened by Communist expansion


Marshall Plan

-June 1947; European Recovery Program
-intend to rebuild prosperity and stability; $13 billion for economic recovery or Europe after the war
-didn’t include the Soviet Union
-helped speed up the division of Europe into 2 competing blocs



-made by the US; policy against aggressive soviet moves; limit soviet expansion



- Allied policy of rooting out any traces of Nazism in German society by bringing prominent Nazis to trial for war crimes and purging any known Nazis from political office


Berlin Air Lift

-=A military operation in the late 1940s that brought food and other needed goods into West Berlin by air after the government of East Germany, which at that time surrounded WestBerlin (see Berlin wall), had cut off its supply routes.


mutual deterrence

-the belief that an arsenal of nuclear weapons prevented war by assuring that if one nation launched its nuclear weapons in a preemptive first strike, the other nation would still be able to respond and devastate the attacker



- North Atlantic Treaty Organization; formed April 1949
-Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal signed a treaty with US and Canada
-all powers agreed to provide mutual assistance if any were attacked


Warsaw Pact

-A military alliance of communist nations in eastern Europe. Organized in 1955 in answer to NATO; included Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union


Korean War

- tensions between N and S Korea; Stalin approved of the Invasion of S Korea by N Korea
-united nations help US; UN forces (US and S Koreans) under the command of General Douglas MacArthur marched northward across the 38th parallel with the aim of reunifying Korea under a single non-Communist government
-China intervenes
-1953= armistice; N and S still divided
-China signs a pact of friendship and cooperation in 1950ish


Mao Zedong

- leader of Communist China; sent Chinese forces into the fray and forced Macarthur's troops back to S Korea


Ho Chi Minh

-led the Indochina Communist Party



- the rebuilding of harmonious relations between nations



- first space satellite


Nikita Krushchev

-new leader of the Soviet Union after Stalin
-attempted to take advantage of the American frenzy over missiles to solve the problem of W Berlin


Cuban Missile Crisis

- Fidel Castro overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista; established a Soviet supported totalitarian regime
-American supported attempt to invade Cuba in 1961 and overthrow castro; FAIL
-1962= Soviet Union station missiles in Cuba
-Kennedy decided to blockade Cuba to prevent Soviet’s missiles to get to it
-peaceful solution
-Krushchev agreed to turn back if Kennedy didn’t invade Cuba
-almost nuclear war



- undoing of colonialism, where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over dependent territories


Kwame Nkrumah

formed the Convention People’s Party in the Gold Coast (first African political party in black Africa)


Mau Mau

-Kikuyu ppls; movement of demand uhuru (freedom in Swahili) from the British; surprised British


Jomo Kenyatta

- founded the Kenya African National Union; focused on economic issues but also sought self rule in Africa



- National Liberation Front; Algerian nationalists; initiated guerilla war to liberate in 1954



- system of racial segregation in S Africa


Nelson Mandela

-African Nationalist Congress (ANC) leader; arrested


Arab League

-1945; Arab unity



-those who wanted Palestine as home for the Jews


Col. Gamel Abdel Nasser

- seized control of the Egyptian gov in 1954 and nationalized the Suez Canal conpany in 1956


Suez Crisis

- international crisis in the Middle East, precipitated on July 26, 1956, when the Egyptian president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, nationalized the Suez Canal
-The canal had been owned by the Suez Canal Company, which was controlled by French and British interests.


United Arab Republic (UAR)

- March 1958; Egypt formally unites with Syria; both hoped the union would eventually have all arab states
-1961= Nassar’s plans and the UAR came to an end when military leaders seized control of Syria and withdrew it from the UAR


Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)

-epresent the interests of the Palestinians; believed that only the Palestinian ppls(not Jewish immigrants) had the right to form a state in Palestine


Yassir Arafat

- PLO leader; led a guerrilla movement call al-Fatah; launched terrorist attacks on Israeli territory


Indian National Congress

-1947; Hindu
- the largest and most prominent Indian public organization, and central and defining influence of the Indian Independence Movement.


Muslim League

- political organization of India and Pakistan


India and Pakistan



Jawaharlal Nehru

-led India to be neutral in the Cold War; sought to provide leadership to all newly independent nations in Asia and Africa


nonaligned movement

- a group of states which are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc