Unit 10: Postwar Europe Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 10: Postwar Europe Deck (41):
1

Cold War

-the state of political hostility that existed between the Soviet bloc countries and the US-led Western powers from 1945 to 1990; stemmed from military, political, and ideological differences, especially between the Soviet Union and the USA
-dominated European and world politics for more than 40 years

2

Tehran Conference

- The Big Three (Stalin, FDR, and Churchill) met at Tehran (capital of Iran) to decide the future course of the war; Nov 1943
-`What should be the final attack on Germany→ American-british invasion of the Continent through France; spring 1944

3

Yalta Conference

- Feb 1945
-Soviet Union wanted a buffer to protect it from future Western aggression
-Declaration on Liberated Europe= assis liberatedEuropean nations in the creation of the democratic institutions of their own choice
-United Nations
-Germany must surrender unconditionally; divided up into 4 occupation zones
-Poland→ provisional govs with Lublin Poles (Polish poles living in exile) and London poles (non-Communists exiled in Britain)

4

Potsdam Conference

-July 1945; Truman demands free elections throughout eastern Europe; Stalin opposed
-Stalin wanted absolute military security→ only present in Communist states in E Europe→ is there are free elections, there might be hostile gov to the Soviets

5

United Nations

- an international organization formed in 1945 to increase political and economic cooperation among member countries

6

Vyacheslav Molotov

-Russian foreign minister; referred to the Americans as insatiable imperialists and war mongering groups of adventurers

7

iron curtain

- ordered by Churchill; descended across the continent, dividing Germany and Europe into 2 hostil camps

8

Truman Doctrine

-said that the US would provide financial aid to countries that claimed that they were threatened by Communist expansion

9

Marshall Plan

-June 1947; European Recovery Program
-intend to rebuild prosperity and stability; $13 billion for economic recovery or Europe after the war
-didn’t include the Soviet Union
-helped speed up the division of Europe into 2 competing blocs

10

containment

-made by the US; policy against aggressive soviet moves; limit soviet expansion

11

Denazification

- Allied policy of rooting out any traces of Nazism in German society by bringing prominent Nazis to trial for war crimes and purging any known Nazis from political office

12

Berlin Air Lift

-=A military operation in the late 1940s that brought food and other needed goods into West Berlin by air after the government of East Germany, which at that time surrounded WestBerlin (see Berlin wall), had cut off its supply routes.

13

mutual deterrence

-the belief that an arsenal of nuclear weapons prevented war by assuring that if one nation launched its nuclear weapons in a preemptive first strike, the other nation would still be able to respond and devastate the attacker

14

NATO

- North Atlantic Treaty Organization; formed April 1949
-Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal signed a treaty with US and Canada
-all powers agreed to provide mutual assistance if any were attacked

15

Warsaw Pact

-A military alliance of communist nations in eastern Europe. Organized in 1955 in answer to NATO; included Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union

16

Korean War

- tensions between N and S Korea; Stalin approved of the Invasion of S Korea by N Korea
-united nations help US; UN forces (US and S Koreans) under the command of General Douglas MacArthur marched northward across the 38th parallel with the aim of reunifying Korea under a single non-Communist government
-China intervenes
-1953= armistice; N and S still divided
-China signs a pact of friendship and cooperation in 1950ish

17

Mao Zedong

- leader of Communist China; sent Chinese forces into the fray and forced Macarthur's troops back to S Korea

18

Ho Chi Minh

-led the Indochina Communist Party

19

rapproachment

- the rebuilding of harmonious relations between nations

20

Sputnik

- first space satellite

21

Nikita Krushchev

-new leader of the Soviet Union after Stalin
-attempted to take advantage of the American frenzy over missiles to solve the problem of W Berlin

22

Cuban Missile Crisis

- Fidel Castro overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista; established a Soviet supported totalitarian regime
-American supported attempt to invade Cuba in 1961 and overthrow castro; FAIL
-1962= Soviet Union station missiles in Cuba
-Kennedy decided to blockade Cuba to prevent Soviet’s missiles to get to it
-peaceful solution
-Krushchev agreed to turn back if Kennedy didn’t invade Cuba
-almost nuclear war

23

Decolonization

- undoing of colonialism, where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over dependent territories

24

Kwame Nkrumah

formed the Convention People’s Party in the Gold Coast (first African political party in black Africa)

25

Mau Mau

-Kikuyu ppls; movement of demand uhuru (freedom in Swahili) from the British; surprised British

26

Jomo Kenyatta

- founded the Kenya African National Union; focused on economic issues but also sought self rule in Africa

27

FLN

- National Liberation Front; Algerian nationalists; initiated guerilla war to liberate in 1954

28

Apartheid

- system of racial segregation in S Africa

29

Nelson Mandela

-African Nationalist Congress (ANC) leader; arrested

30

Arab League

-1945; Arab unity

31

zionists

-those who wanted Palestine as home for the Jews

32

Col. Gamel Abdel Nasser

- seized control of the Egyptian gov in 1954 and nationalized the Suez Canal conpany in 1956

33

Suez Crisis

- international crisis in the Middle East, precipitated on July 26, 1956, when the Egyptian president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, nationalized the Suez Canal
-The canal had been owned by the Suez Canal Company, which was controlled by French and British interests.

34

United Arab Republic (UAR)

- March 1958; Egypt formally unites with Syria; both hoped the union would eventually have all arab states
-1961= Nassar’s plans and the UAR came to an end when military leaders seized control of Syria and withdrew it from the UAR

35

Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)

-epresent the interests of the Palestinians; believed that only the Palestinian ppls(not Jewish immigrants) had the right to form a state in Palestine

36

Yassir Arafat

- PLO leader; led a guerrilla movement call al-Fatah; launched terrorist attacks on Israeli territory

37

Indian National Congress

-1947; Hindu
- the largest and most prominent Indian public organization, and central and defining influence of the Indian Independence Movement.

38

Muslim League

- political organization of India and Pakistan

39

India and Pakistan

-??

40

Jawaharlal Nehru

-led India to be neutral in the Cold War; sought to provide leadership to all newly independent nations in Asia and Africa

41

nonaligned movement

- a group of states which are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc