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Flashcards in Ch 12: Renaissance (Unit 1) Deck (56):


-time of recovery


Jacob Burckhardt

-Swiss historian and art critic
-wrote The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, which described the birth of modernism (starting in Italy in the 14th and 15 centuries), rebirth of antiquity (“perfecting of the individual”), and secularism (“worldliness”).


Renaissance Italy

-urban (cities), not rural
-northern Italy= independent states
-wealth= new ways to enjoy wordy things
-wealthy merchants= oligarchies
-Florence= center of Renaissance


l’uomo universale

-universal person
-“a new social ideal of the well-rounded personality”


Hanseatic League (Hansa)

-a commercial and military association formed by North German coastal towns which established settlements and commercial bases in cities in England and northern Europe and Denmark Norway, and Sweden
-had a monopoly on northern European trade in timber, fish, grain, metals, honey, and wines.
-Italians lost commercial importance; Hanseatic League prospered


de Medici family

- banking family in Florence
-principal bankers for the papacy
-dominated Florence’s economic, political, and artistic life for most of 15th century
-merchant family
-House of Medici= greatest bank in Europe
-suffered at the end of the 15th century b/c of poor leadership and bad loans
-1494= expelled from Florence; property was taken away; collapsed


Renaissance society

-divided among classes
-First Estate= clergy who believed ppl should be guided spiritually
-Second Estate= nobility; provided security and justice for society; provided security and justice for society
-Third Estate= peasants and inhabitants of towns and cities
-manorialism was weakening; serfdom declining; more peasants became legally free by the end of the 15th century


Renaissance towns and cities

-had their own social and economic order
-patricians= wealthy; dominated urban communities socially, politically, and economically
-petty burghers= shopkeepers, artisans, guildmasters, and guild members; provided goods and services for local
-propertyless workers= low wages; horrible loves; 40% of population


Baldassare Castiglione

-wrote The Book of the Courtier published in 1528, which was handbook for European aristocrats (men and women)
-the perfect courier has to have native endowments (impeccable character, grace, talents, and noble birth), participate in bodily and military exercises, and get a Classical education and play a musical instrument, be able to draw and paint. They also had to follow a certain code of conduct.
-polite, charming, witty, be able to dance, write poetry, sing play music, be physically graceful and strong
-perfect court lady= educated and charming but not to seek fame; inspire poetry but not create it



-used as skilled workers (make handcraft goods for masters) or household workers
-“the domestic enemy”
-since there was a shortage of workers during the Black Death, people used slaves
-girls= nursemaids
-most were girls
-men took slaves as concubines= illegitimate children
-slaves were from the eastern Mediterranean, the Black Sea region (Tartars, Russians, Albanians, and Dalmations), Africa (Moors or Ethiopians), or Spain (Muslims)
-Italy= involved in slave trade
-1414-1423= 10,000 slaves were sold on the Venetian market
-end of 15th century= slavery declined; many were freed for humanitarian reasons and the source of slaves declined
-prices rose
-Portuguese= imported African slaves (140,000 in 1444-1505)


Family in Renaissance Italy

- meant all extended household of parents children and servants
-family names were important (ex: Medici= prestige)
-if one person in the family did something wrong, the whole family would be affected
-marriage= arranged to maintain the family or strengthen business/family ties
-father/husband= center of family; managed finances; authority over children
-wife= managed household; bear children; wealthy had nurses
-Men= married late
-prostitution= regulated (had to wear gloves and a bell)


5 Major Powers/Political Divisions in Italy

MILAN (duchy)
-northern Italy
-Francesco Sforza= one of leading condottieri; became duke of Milan after the Viscontis
-create centralized territorial state and taxes
-northern Italy
-oligarchy→ merchant-aristocrats
-commercial empire; international power
FLORENCE (republic)
-Cosimo de Medici took control of oligarchy
-Lorenzo de Medici= grandson
-both ruled Florence when it was the center of cultural Renaissance
-central Italy
-political control of pope
-Avignon Papacy and Great Schism= allowed some cities/territories (Urbino, Bologna, Ferrara) to become independent from papal authority
-popes= wanted to reestablish the Papal States
-southern Italy/Sicily
-monarchy w/ mostly very poor peasants and unruly nobles


Isabella d’Este

-daughter of duke of Ferrara; married Francesco Gonzaga (marquis of Mantua)
-known for intelligence and political wisdom
-brought together one of the finest libraries in Italy


The Peace of Lodi

-ended 50yrs of war and started a somewhat peaceful 40yrs in Italy
-result= alliance system (Milan, Florence, Naples VS Venice and papacy) was created to balance power but it failed


Habsburg-Valois Wars

-French and Spanish fought to dominate Italy
-Spanish won
-French= King Charles VIII; Francis I
-Spanish= Ferdinand of Aragon; King Charles I


Sack of Rome

-when Charles I, Spanish king, brought a temporary end to the Italian wars and as a result the Spanish dominated Italy


Modern Diplomacy-

-ambassador= advise; agent of territorial state, not Christendom


Niccolo Machiavelli

-Florentine diplomat and political philosopher
-considered the founder of modern political science
-wrote The Prince
-it was a cynical view of human nature and cruel but practical advice
-restore and maintain order in Italy after the Habsburg-Valois Wars
-pessimistic view towards human nature
-a prince must be strong as a lion and shrewd as a fox
-made an example of Cesare Borgia



-intellectual movement in Renaissance Italy based on the study of Greek and Roman classics to understand human nature and learn practical skills
-humanities= grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy or ethics, and history (all based on the writings of ancient Greek and Roman authors
-studying classics= gain more practical understanding of human nature
-Cicero= model; it was the duty of an intellectual to live an active life for one’s state
-schools= taught Roman history, Greek philosophy, and Latin grammar and rhetoric)
mostly for upper class but it was free



-father of Italian Renaissance humanism
-the first to describe the Middle Ages as period of darkness→ Dark Ages (medieval culture= not Classical)


civic humanism

- humanism closely tied with Florentine civic spirit and pride and reflected the values of urban society of the Italian Renaissance


Leonardo Bruni

- humanist, Florentine patriot, and chancellor of Florentine,
-The New Cicero= biography of Cicero; political action+literary creation


Lorenzo Valla

-humanist; lived in 1400s
-The Elegances of the Latin Language= purify medieval Latin and restore it to it’s proper position over vernacular→ new literary standard
-proved The Donation of Constantine a forgery (linguistic and historical analysis)


Marsilio Ficino

-translates Plato; leader of Florentine Platonic Academy
-Neoplatonism= Platonic philosophy
-Neoplatonic hierarchy of substance (great chain of being)= from lowest form of matter (plants) to purest spirit (God) with humans in middle position
-theory of spiritual love= just as all ppl are bound together in their common humanity by love, all parts of the universe held together by bonds of sympathetic love too


Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

-pupil of Ficono
-wrote the Oration on the Dignity of Man= works of many philosophers of different backgrounds; man can do what he choses to do, whatever he wills to do
-interest in Hermeticism (nature…..)
-celebrates human potential for greatness


Francesco Guicciardini

- late 14th -early 15th century; one of the greatest historians between Tacitus (1st century) and voltaire and Gibbon (8th century)
-History of Italy and History of Florence= beginning of “modern analytical historiography”


Johannes Gutenberg

-from Mainz
-inventor of printing press
-Gutenberg’s Bible (1455/1456)= first true book in the west produced from movable type
-1500= more than 1,000 printers in Europe; published 40,000 titles (8-10 million copies)
-most were religious books
-Latin and Greek classics; medieval grammars; legal handbooks; philosophy; romances
-printing books= increased development of scholarly research (attain knowledge); helped produce standardized and definitive texts; lay reading in public; spread of new religious ideas (Reformation)
-humanists ideas spread
-made it hard to suppress unliked views
-promoted freedom of expression; publicized info; challenged power of established authority (Church) to control different/divergent view



-Perspective= geometric method of creating the illusion of depth on a flat 2D surface
-Chiaroscuro= realistic blending of light and shade to model forms (creates illusion of volume)
-3D Pyramid configuration= create symmetrical and balanced compositions
-Classical forms (ideal standard of beauty)and Christian subjects



-Italian painter who brought a new realistic style of painting
-fresco style of painting
-used monumental figures, a more realistic relationship between figures and landscape, and a visual representation of the laws of perspectives
-3D figures
-model for later generations of Florentine artists


Sandro Botticelli

-member of the court of of artists and scholars Lorenzo the Magnificent
-Primavera= “Spring”, painting, set in the garden of Venus (garden of eternal spring),


Donato di Donatello

-studied and copied statues of antiquity in Rome
-Statue of David= first known life size, free-standing bronze nude in European art since antiquity; may have celebrated Florentine heroism in the triumph of Florence over the Milanese in 1428
-simplicity and strength→ reflects dignity of humanity


Filippo Brunelleschi

-went with Donatello to Rome and was inspired by the architectural movements of Roman antiquity
-build a dome for the Duomo (unfinished cathedral of Florence) → new machinery and techniques
-Church of San Lorenzo= Medici had him build it; different than medieval cathedral; had classical columns, rounded arches, and coffered ceiling; it was not too complex as to overwhelm the ppl in it


High Renaissance

-final stage of Renaissance art; late 1400s-beginning of 1500s (1480-1520); marked by the increasing importance of Rome as a new cultural center of the Italian Renaissance
-individualistic (unique) forms of creative expression
-Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo


Leonardo da Vinci

-studied everything; dissected human bodies
-started the High Renaissance’s focus on the idealization of nature (generalize from realistic to ideal)
-Last Supper= personality and relationship to Jesus of the figures/apostles are revealed through gestures (reveal inner life of a person)



- painter who, at 25, was one of Italy’s best painters and famous for his madonnas
--School of Athens= balance, harmony, and order (basic principles of the art of the classical world of Greece and Rome)
-greek philosophers (plato and aristotle)



- painter, sculptor and architect who was influenced by Neoplatonism
-ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome= Pope Julius II called him to Rome to do this; took 4 yrs to do (1508-1512)
-it told the story of the Fall of Man; nine scenes from Genesis
-Creation of Adam= on Sistine Chapel ceiling; ideal beauty (Adam)
-David= marble statue; 14 feet; ideal beauty; beauty of the human body and glory of human beings
-“Il Divino”= the Divine One


Donato Bramante

-the Tempietto= “little temple”, columns, dome, recaptured grandeur of Rome; given this task by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain (small building in Rome that would commemorate the place where St Peter was claimed to be crucified
-Saint Peter’s Basilica


Northern Artistic Renaissance

-north= Since Gothic cathedrals and stained glass windows were popular, illuminated manuscripts and wooden panel paintings for altarpieces were created more
-since there wasn’t a lot of space in the wooden panels, painters had to be very careful which caused them to become masters at making fine details; first to use and perfect oil painting
-not mastery of laws of perspective and proportion but visual reality and accurate portrayal of details


Jan van Eyke

-northern artist and one of the first to oil paint (range of colors and able to create fine details)
-Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride=lots of detail, precise, mirror reflects the images in the room


Albrecht Durer

- northern artist (Flemish); combined Italian and northern Renaissance artistic view together
-Adoration of the Magi= very detailed and harmoniously detailed to achieve a standard of ideal beauty by a careful examination if the human form. like artists did in the Italian Renaissance


Guillaume Dufay

-omposer and the first to use secular tunes to replace Gregorian chants as the fixed melody that served as the basis for the Mass
-composed secular songs, which showed that music was beginning to not be used chiefly in the service of God and moved to courts and cities (secular world)



-chief form of secular music in Italy and France
-poem set to music; in Italian courts in 14th century



-Catholic Church, guilds, wealthy families (Medici)
-commissioned artists to create art
-used art as a way of displaying their wealth and promoting fame


new monarchies

-governments at the end of the 15th century in France, England, and Spain; reestablish centralized monarchical governments
-monarchs- retained feudal income while taxing towns, merchants and peasants
-had pro armies (no lord-vassal relationship)
-negotiated new relationship with Catholic Church


King Louis XI

-after Charles VII (1461-1483)
-known as the Spider (wily and devious ways)
-kept the taille as a permanent tax= sound and regular source of income
-Charles the Bold= duke of Burgundy, Louis XI’s vassal; attempted to create a middle kingdom between France and Germany (Low Countries to Switzerland); opposed by Louis
-his lands were added to Louis’s lands
-created a base for the later development of a strong French monarchy
-enlarged royal army; economic growth= silk weaving


Henry VII

- first Tudor king; abolished “livery and maintenance” (wealthy aristocrats maintained private armies of followers dedicated to the service of their lord); encouraged wool industries and expanded English merchant marine
-England didn’t have a standing army
-Henry VII established Court of Star Chamber to control the irresponsibility of the nobles; it didn’t use juries and allowed torture to be used to get confessions
-he didn’t call Parliament to grant hum funds to avoid wars
-didn’t over tax the gentry and the middle class, so he won their favor and support
-Henry VIII= king= supreme head of Church of England; cut English ties with Church


Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragon

- not a political marriage union
-both kingdoms kept their own parliaments, courts, laws, coinage, speech, customs, and political organs
-royal council (supervised local admin and execution of gov policies)= no more aristocrats, replaced with middle class lawyers, who were trained in the principles of Roman law; believed that the monarchy embodied the power of the state
-recognized the importance of controlling the Catholic Church
-instituted reform
-secured the right to chose most important church officials in Spain, guaranteeing the creation of a Spanish Catholic Church (clergy= tool for extension of royal power)


The Inquisition

-started in 1478; cruel; guaranteed the orthodoxy of the converts but had no authority over practicing Jews
-expelled all professed Jews from Spain (150,000 out of 200,000 fled)
-attacked Granada (Muslim kingdom in Spain); lasted 11 yrs; fell in 1492
Muslims were encouraged to convert; Isabella expelled all professed Muslims from Castille
-to be Spanish was to be Catholic


Habsburg dynasty

-the position of Holy Roman Emperor was left in their hands; became one of the wealthiest landholders in the empire; mid 15th century began to play an important role in European affair
-success= mostly on dynastic marriages
-became an international power
-Maximilian I= son= Philip of Burgundy= married to daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella (Joanna)
-Philip and Joanna’s son= Charles; he became the heir to the Habsburg, Burgundian, and the Spanish lines; the leading monarch of his age


Ivan III

-prince, under him, a new principality of Moscow was born
-added Russian principalities; took advantage of dissension of Mongols


Siege of Constantinople

-Mehmet II laid seige with 80.000 tropes
-Turks used cannons with 26 ft barrels; took down the walls of Constantinople
-Byzantine emperor died in final battle
-After conquest of Constantinople= Ottoman Turks tried to complete their conquest of the Balkans


John Wyclif

-Oxford theologian; made English Lollardy,
-attacked papal authority and medieval Christian beliefs and practices
-said the Bible didn’t say anything about papal claims of temporal authority; said popes should be stripped of authority and property
Bible should be a Christian’s sile authority; wanted the Bible in vernacular so everyone could read it
-condemned pilgrimages and the veneration of saints and a series of rituals and rites made by the medieval church
-followers= Lollards


Pope Pius II

-Exercrabilis= papal bull that condemned appeals to a council over the head of a pope


Pope Julius II

-most involved in war and politics; fiery “warrior pope”
-personally led armies


Leo X

- Julius II’s successor; patron/participant of Renaissance culture; son of Lorenzo de Medici


John Hus

-Bohemian chancellor of the university of Prague
-urges the elimination of worldliness and corruption of clergy
-attacked the excessive power of the papacy within the Catholic Church