Unit 5, Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5, Part 2 Deck (56):

***Abbe Sieyes

-pamphlet→ What is Third Estate? Everything. What has it been thus far in the political order? Nothing. What does it demand? to become something.
-not general feeling of nation→ some ppl still wanted to make changes within the framework of respect for authority of king (revival or reform didn’t mean to overthrow traditional institutions)


National Assembly

-evolutionary assembly formed by the representatives of the Third Estate of the Estates-General
-thereafter it was known as the National Constituent Assembly
-wanted to make a new constitution


Tennis Court Oath

-National Assembly swore that they would meet until they had produced a French constitution (break with estates general)
-both the first step in the French revolution (third estate had no legal right to act as the National Assembly
-revolution in jeopardy; king sided with first estate and wanted to dissolve Estates-General→ Louis XVI use force


Fall of the Bastille

-most famous urban uprisings
-it used to be a prison
-parisian mob attacked the bastille
-marquis de launay= commander, wanted to negotiate
-he surrendered
-Parisians think of it as a great victory and it became the popular symbol of triumph over despotism


The Great Fear

-vast panic that spread like wildfire through france between July 20-August 6
-fear of invasion of foreign troops supported by aristocrats
-encouraged formation of more citizen’s militias and permanent committees


Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

-provided for an ideological foundation for its actions and an educational device for nation
-charter for basic liberties
-French enlightened ideas; from dec of independence and US constitution
-natural rights
-no privileges
-no exemption from taxation
-freedom of speech and press


Olympe de Gouges

-French playwright and pamphleteer
-the chief advocate for political rights of women
-didn’t like exclusion of women from political rights
-Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen= insisted that women should have all the same rights as men
-National Assembly ignored her


*******Women’s March to Versaille

-October 5= Parisian women, thousands, marched to Versaille (from 12 miles away) to confront the king and the National Assembly
-meeting with delegation of women→ told how children were starving for lack of break



-form of paper money; issued based on the collateral of the newly nationalized church property


Civil Constitution of the Clergy

-july 1790
-bishops and priest of Catholic Church were to be elected by the ppl and paid by state
-all clergy were required to swear an oath of allegiance to the Civil Constitution
-pope forbade this
-only 54% of French parish clergy took the oath and majority of bishops refused
-Church= still important institution in lives of French ppl but enemy of Revolution
-counterrevolution= popular base for ppl to operate



- emerged as a gathering of more radical deputies at the beginning of the Revolution
-member= usually elite and tradesppl and artisans



-where King Louis XVI and his family was captured while trying to escape from ___


****Legislative Assembly

-followed the National Assembly
-clerics and nobles were mostly gone
-most of reps were men of property; many were lawyers
-until national convention


Declaration of Pillnitz

- passed by Emperor Leopold II of Austria and King Frederick William of Prussia
-invites other European monarchs to take effectual means to put the king of France in a state to strengthen, in perfect liberty, the bases of a monarchical gov equally becoming to the rights of sovereigns and to the well-being of the French Nation
-against French Revolution


La Marseillaise

-French army invaded Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) but was routed; Paris feared invasion→ National Assembly called for 20,000 National Guardsmen from provinces to come and defend Paris
-one group came from Marseille and sang this song
-national anthem for France


*****national convention

-chosen on the basis of universal male suffrage to decide on the future form of gov


***Paris Commune

-power was passed onto them from the legislative assembly
-composed of many who proudly call themselves the sans-culottes



-ordinary patriots without fine clothes


George Danton

-newly appointed minister of justice
-led the sans-culottes seeking revenge on those who aided the king and resisted the popular will
-fears of treachery→ advance of Prussia army on Paris
-presumed traitors arrested; massacred


National Convention

-Sept 1792
- single chamber assembly, called to draft a new constitution; also acted as sovereign ruling body of France
-dominated by lawyers, pros and property owners; and some artisans;
-almost all had political experience; most didn’t trust king and his activities
-1st major step= sept 21; abolish monarchy and establish republic
-split into factions over fate of the king
-Girondin and the Mountain



- leaders came from dept of Gironde, located in SW France
-feared the radical mobs in Paris; wanted to keep king alive as a hedge against future eventualities
-both members of Jacobin club


the Mountain

-members’ seats were on the side of the convention hall where the floor slanted upward
-represented interests in city of Paris; owed much of it’s strength to radical and popular elements of city
-middle class


****the Vendee



Committee of Public Safety

- executive committee
initially dominated by Danton
-12 member
-gave country leadership to control domestic and foreign crisis of 1793
Maximilien Robespierre


Maximilien Robespierre

-small town lawyer, member of Estates-General
-wanted to use power to benefit the ppl (love the ppl (in general, not one-to-one))


Reign of Terror

-established by National Convention and Committee of Public Safety
-revolutionary courts were organized to protect Republic from internal enemies (those who supported tyranny and were not a part of the revolution)
-victims of Reign of Terror (50,000 ppl) = ranged from royalists (Marie Antoinette) to former rev Girondins (Olympe de Gouge)



-revolutionary device for quick and efficient separation of heads from bodies
-most of executions= in the Vendee and in cities, like Lyons and Marseille (places open in rebellion against authority of National Convention


Law of the General Maximum

-established price control on goods declared of first necessity (food, drink, fuel, clothing)
-controls failed to work very well bc the gov lacked machinery to enforce them



-secularization of church
-aimed at creating secular society by eliminating Christian forms and institutions from French society
-“saint” removed from street names; churches pillaged and closed by rev armies; priest encouraged to marry
-Temple of REASON


Temple of Reason

-cathedral of Notre Dame
-ceremony dedicated to worship the reason


new republican calendar

- (Oct 5 1793)→ years not numbered by birth of Jesus but from Sept 22, 1792, the day the French Republic was proclaimed→ by now French are living in year II
-12 months; each month had 3 10 day weeks called decades
-10th day of each week a rest day (decadai)
-no more Sunday worship days, church holidays, → less non-working holidays
-religious festivals replaced by revolutionary festivals
-5 days at end of the year to celebrate revolutionary virtues during festival→ Virtue, Intelligence, Labor, Opinion, and Rewards
-rename months


Toussaint L’Ouverture

-took leadership of revolt; son of African slaves, seized control of Hispaniola
Napoleon liked equality but thought that the massacres showed the true savage nature of slaves
-he was captured
-Jan 1 1804→ western part of Hispaniola (Haiti) announced its freedom and became first independent state in Latin America


*** Thermidorian Reaction

-execution of Robespierre
- was a revolt within the French Revolution against the leadership of the Jacobin Club over the Committee of Public Safety



- executive authority
-5 directors elected by Council of Elders from a list presented by Council of 500


Gracchus Baebuf

radical; went beyond earlier goals
-wanted to abolished private property and eliminate private enterprise
-Conspiracy of Equals → 1796 crushed; he was executed in 1797
-before ppl wanted to either restore the monarchy or not restore monarchy


Napoleone Buonaparte

-dominated French and European history from 1799-1815
-great military commander
- read works of philosophes (Rousseau); educated himself on in military matter by studying campaigns of great military leaders from the past
-Josephine de Beauharnais
-1804= crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I
-wanted to limit arbitrary ogv→ became more autocratic than the old regime
(kinda like a dictator)


*****Italian and Egyptian Campaign

-Napoleon wanted to take Egypt and threaten India, a major source of British wealth→ weakened Britain but British cut of supplies to his army in Egypt


***First Consul

-there were 3 consuls but they thought that the decision of the first consul was good enough
-Napoleon was First Consul→ controlled executive authority of gov
-influence over legislature; appointed members of bureaucracy, controlled army, conducted foreign affairs


the Concordat

-agreement between pope and Napoleon
-1801; pope gained right to depose French bishops but little real control over French Catholic Church
-state has real control
-clergy and ministers paid by state


The Civil Code

-Code Napoleon; preserved most of the revolutionary gains
-reflected the revolutionary desire for a uniform legal system, legal equality, and protection of property and individuals
-equality of citizens before the law
-religious toleration; no serfdom and feudalism
-undid ease of divorce and undid the restricted rights of fathers/husband made in the Rev



-responsible for supervising all aspects of local gov; agents of central gov
-not local men→ careers depended on central gov


Germaine de Stael

-prominent writer; refused to accept Napoleon’s growing despotism
-educated in enlightened ideas
-set up a salon in Paris→ prominent intellectual center by 1800
-she wrote novels and political works→ denounced Napoleon’s rule as tyrannical
-Napoleon banned her books and exiled her to German states→ continued to write
-returned to Paris after Napoleon was overthrown


****Peace of Amiens

-treaty signed GB, France, Britain
-didn’t last bc British and French both regarded it as temporary and had little intention of adhering to its terms


Battle at Austerlitz

-more war after peace of amiens
-Napoleon vs Tsar Alexander I (Russian army) and Austrian troops
-French outnumbered by tsar picked poor terrain; Napoleon defeated them; tsar went back to Russia


The Grand Empire

-Napoleon; 3 major parts
-French empire (inner core of Grand Empire); dependent states (Spain, Netherlands, kingdom of Italy; Swiss republic; Grand Duchy of Warsaw; Confederation of the Rhine (union of all german states except Austria and Prussia)
); allied states (Russia, Austria, and Russia)
-demanded obedience
-tried to destroy old order→ nobility and clergy lost privileges
-merit; equality before law; religious toleration


Battle at Trafalgar

-Napoleon (with help of Spanish navy) couldn’t defeat the British navy
-Britain’s survival= seapower; as long as they ruled the sea, they were invulnerable to military attack


Continental System

-it attempted to prevent British goods from reaching the European continent in order to weaken Britain economically and destroy its capacity to wage war
-allied resented
-new markets in Mediterranean and Latin America for British



-emphasis on fraternite= brotherhood


Johann Gottlieb Fichte

-philosopher; at first welcomed the French Revolution for freeing the human spirit
-became a supporter of German national spirit radically different from that of France
-awaken dream of German nationalism (19th century)



-where Napoleon was sent after he was defeated the first time
-allowed to ruled this island


Battle of Waterloo

-Napoleon came back to France; still thought of himself as Emperor
-Napoleon raised an army to fight allied forces
-June 18 1814
-Napoleon vs Prussian army and British army


Saint Helena

-where Napoleon was exiled to the second time after coming back to France (Waterloo)


Congress of Vienna

-GB, Austria, Prussia, and Russia= Quadruple Alliance
-defeated Napoleon→ restore Bourbon monarchy to France (Louis XVIII)
-Congress of Vienna= In sept 1814 to arrange a final peace settlement
-order established by Congress of Vienna managed to avoid general European conflict for almost 100 yrs


Prince Klemens von Metternich

-leader at Congress of Vienna
-experience diplomat
-conceited self assured
-Metternich thought that he was guided at Vienna by the principle of legitimacy


principle of legitimacy

-idea that peace should be established (after Napoleon) in Europe by restoring legitimate monarchs who would preserve traditional institutions
-this was done in France and Spain (restoration of Bourbons) and in Italian states (rulers returned to throne)
-some places ignored this


balance of power

- to prevent any one country from dominating Europe
-Prussia and Austria needed to be strengthened to balance Russia’s gains→ avoid great danger