Unit 3; Absolutism and Constitutionalism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3; Absolutism and Constitutionalism Deck (39):
1

conscription

-compulsory (mandatory) enlistment for state service, typically into the armed forces→ drafting/recruiting

2

absolutism

- absolute monarchy; sovereign power (ultimate authority) in the state rested in the hands of a king who claimed to rule by divine right

3

Jacques Bossuet

-1627-1704
-divine-right monarchy
-Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture
-thought that gov was divinely ordained so that humans could live in an organized society
-God established kings and through them reigned over all ppls of the world
-kings receive power from God= authority was absolute; they were responsible for no ones except God
-kings faced serious responsibilities and limits on power b/c God would hold a king accountable for his actions (but a monarch’s power was often limited greatly by practical realities)

4

Louis XIV

-1643-1715
-best example of the practice of absolute monarchy
-before Louis= time of ministerial gov struggling to avoid the breakdown of the state
-Louis XIII and Louis XIV= too young to rule when inherited the throne; gov depended on royal ministers to rule
--Edict of Fontainebleau

5

Cardinal Richelieu

-Louis XIII chief minister from 1624-1642; strengthen monarchy;
-took away military and political rights of Huguenots; more reliable subjects
-made a network of spies that uncovered the plots of nobles; crushed conspiracies; executed conspirators; eliminated a major threat to royal authority
-intendants
-Richelieu= less capable in financial matters; many ppl benefitted from the system’s inefficiency and injustice→ strong resistance
-taille (land/property tax)= increase; crown lands= mortgaged
-French debt
-died 1642

6

intendants

- reform and strengthen central admin (financial reasons); royal officials; execute orders of central gov; strengthened powers of crown

7

Cardinal Mazarin

- Richelieu’s trained successor; attempted to carry his policies; dominated gov
-foreigner; disliked by French population
-nobles= didn’t like centralized admin power building up at the expense of provincial nobility; temporarily allied with Paris Parlement (opposed new taxes to pay for 30 Yrs War) and masses of Paris
-PARLEMANT
-died in 1661

8

The Fronde

-revolt (series of 2)
-1648-1652
-????????
-1st =________
-2nd Fronde 1650= led by nobles of sword (ancestors= medieval nobles)
-wanted to overthrow Mazarin to secure their positions and increase their power
-crushed in 1652; nobles began fighting each other

9

The Parlement of Paris

-most important court in France; jurisdiction over half of half of half of kingdom; members formed nobles of the robe (service nobility of lawyers and admin), who led the first Fronde (1648-1649) that broke out in Paris (ended by compromise)

10

Edict of Fontainebleau

- October 1685; revoked Edict of Nantes; destruction of Huguenot churches and closing of Protestant schools
-200,00 Huguenots= defied; sought refuge in England, United Provinces, and German states
-support of expulsion of Protestants came from Catholic layppl who rejected Protestant rights, banned them from gov meetings, and destroyed Protestant churches to regain Catholic control of heavily populated Protestant regions

11

Versaille

-came to set standard for monarchies and aristocracies all over Europe
-personal household of the king
-location of central gov machinery (state affairs)
-place where powerful subjects came to find favors and offices for themselves and their clients
-where rival aristocratic factions fought for power
home to thousands of royal officials and aristocratic courtiers

12


divine-right monarchy

-theory of that kings receive power from God= authority was absolute; they were responsible for no ones except God
-Jacques Bossuet

13

Jean-Baptiste Colbert

-1619-1683
-controller of general finances for Louis
-wanted to increase wealth and power of France through general adherence to mercantilism (stressed gov regulation of economic activities to benefit states)
-decrease need for imports and increase exports= he attempted to expand quantity and improve quality of French manufactured goods
-founded new luxury industries (royal tapestry works @ Beauvais); invited Venetian glassmakers and Flemish clothmakers to France
-regulated quality of good produced; oversaw training of workers
-granted special privileges (tax exemptions, loans and subsidies) to ppl who established new industries
-roads and canals= improve communication and transport good internally
-decrease imports (directly)= raised tariffs on foreign manufactured goods (especially English and Dutch cloth)
-created merchant marine to make the transporting of French goods easier
-downside= the more revenue Colbert collected to help Louis make war; the faster Louis depleted the treasury
-although Louis bankrupted the treasury, the changes Colbert made to the economic practices allowed for greater economic growth in 18th century

14

Peace of Utrecht

-1713
-confirmed Philip V as Spanish ruler; initiated a Spanish Bourbon dynasty that would last into the 20the century
-throne of Spanish and French are separate
-“natural borders”

15

French Classicism

-2nd half of 17rh century= France replace Italy as cultural leader of Europe
-rejected baroque (overly showy and emotional)
-remained committed to Classical values of High Renaissance
-clarity, simplicity, balance, harmony of design
-reflected shift from chaos to order in 16th century French society
-continued baroque concept of grandeur in the portrayal of noble subjects, especial classical
-Nicolas Poussin= scenes from Classical mythology; orderliness of landscapes; postures of figures copied from sculptures of antiquity; used of brown tones; FRENCH CLASSICISM

16

Spanish Theater (Spain’s Golden Century)

-1st pro theaters= 1570s in Madrid and Seville; run by actor’s companies
-Lope de Vega= middle class background
-creative writer; almost ⅓ of his plays survived
-plays= witty, charming, action packed, realistic
-said that the foremost duty of a playwright was to satisfy public demand
-Shakespeare believed the same thing
-didn’t like it if ppl wrote plays for fame

17

Jean-Baptiste Racine

-classical plays
-Phedre= his best play; follows the plot of Hippolytus (by Greek tragedian Euripides)
-perfected French neoclassical tragic style; focused on conflicts between love and honor or inclination and duty
-characterized and revealed tragic dimensions of life

18

Jean-Baptiste Moliere

-enjoyed favor of French court and benefitted from patronage of Louis XIV
-wrote, produced, and acted in comedies that satirized religious and social world of his time
-Tartuffe= ridiculed religious hypocrisy; Paris clergy didn’t find this funny and banned it for 5 yrs
his satires often got him in trouble
-protection of the king saved him from more severe harassment

19

Hohenzollern dynasty

-1415 came to rule
-Brandenburg-Prussia= 3 disconnected masses in western, central, and eastern germany; one Hohenzollern ruler connected them; small, open territory; no natural frontiers for defense

20

Frederick William the Great Elector

-1604-1688
-aid foundation for Prussian states; came to power during the 30 Yrs War
-built standing army; 1678= 40,000 men; took up 50% of the state’s revenues
-established the General War Commissariat
-he needed support from the nobles→ made an agreement in order to eliminate the power of the members of the nobility could exercise in their provincial Estates-General
-Frederick= ran the gov (deprived provincial Estates of noble power) -> nobles were allowed to have almost unlimited power over their peasants; they weren’t taxed; awarded with the highest ranks in the army and the Commissariat with the understanding that they would not challenge Frederick’s political control
-nobles were allowed to take the peasants land and bind them to the land as serfs
-build Brandenburg-Prussia’s economy= mercantilist policies; construct roads and canals using high tariffs; subsidies, and monopolies for manufactures to stimulate domestic industry
-favored interests of nobility at the expense of the commercial and industrial middle classes in the towns
-son= Frederick III

21

General War Commissariat

-levy taxes for the army and oversee its growth and training
-turned into an agency for civil government; he used it to govern the state
-official members= Junkers

22

Junkers

-Prussian landed aristocracy

23

Frederick III

-1688-1713
-officially granted the title of king-in-Prussia b/c he aided the Holy Roman Emperor in the War of the Spanish succession
-became King Frederick I

24

Siege of Vienna

-1683
-Ottomans pushed westward; siege to Vienna
European army= counterattack (Austrians) in 1687; defeated Ottomans
-Treaty of Karlowitz

25

Treaty of Karlowitz

-1699; Austria took control of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia→ establishing Austrian Empire in SE Europe
-end of War of Spanish Succession= Austria gained possession of Spanish Netherlands and Spanish possessions in Italy (Milan, Mantua, Sardinia, Naples)
-18th century= empire= large

26

boyars

-Russian nobility

27

Time of Troubles

-1598= Ivan’s reign ended
-revival of aristocratic power
-new dynasty--> Romanov Dynasty

28

Romanov Dynasty

-he Zemsky Sobor (national assembly) chose Michael Romanov as new tsar→ new dynasty→
-lasted until 1917

29

17th century Muscovite Society……

-tsar= claimed to be divinely ordained aristocratic ruler
-upper-class= landed aristocrats
-peasants= bound to land of landed nobility→ serfdom (lots of land, not a lot of peasants)
-townspeople= controlled; merchants= not allowed to move from their cities w/o permission of gov or to sell businesses to ppl outside of their social class
-merchant and peasant revolts; schism in Russian Orthodox Church
-more contact with the West, Western ideas were beginning to come into Russia
-not really affected by the Renaissance and Reformation or geographical discoveries of 16th and 17th

30

Peter the Great

-1689-1725
-tall, rude,
-westernize russia
-European tech and gadgets→ move these to Russia→ this could give hims the army and navy he needed to make Russian a great power
-reorganized army and create navy→ conscription (peasants) → 25 yr stints; army of 210,000 men
-formed Russia’s first navy
-reorganized central gov
-1711= created Senate to supervise admin machinery of the state while he was away on military campaigns
-divided Russia into 8 provinces→ 50 in 1719
-demanded that all members of landholding class serve in military or civil orders
-1722= Table of Rank= create opportunities for non-nobles to serve state and join the nobility
-work way up the ranks; merit not name
-borrowed mercantilism= make money for army/navy (increase exports; new industries for domestic resources (iron mines))
-control of Russian Orthodox Church→ Holy Synod= makes decisions for Church (no patriarchy); head= procurator (layman who represented interests of tsar; assured Peter of effective domination of church
-book of etiquette= western manners
-beards= shaved; coats= shortened bc Europeans didn’t wear beards or long coats→ barbers and tailors
-Saint Petersburg
-women could marry of their own free will
-Great Northern War
-creation of military= added more burdens to the masses of the Russian people
-Westernization= only reached upper-classes

31

Saint Petersburg

-social gatherings 3 times a week; men and women have conversations, card games, dancing (Western things)
-capital; many peasants died while making it; stayed the capital until 1917

32

Great Northern War

-1701-1721; Sweden vs. Russia
-Battle of Narva= Charles had 8,000 men; Russia had 40,000 men; Charles won
-Battle of Poltava= Peter fought back and won
-Peace of Nystadt 1721= formal recognition to what Peter achieved→ purchase of Estonia, Livonia, and Karelia
-Sweden= second rate power; Russia= greatest European states; great military power and important member of European states system

33

The Sejm

-Polish diet; 2-chamber assembly in which landowners completely dominated the few townspeople and lawyers who were also members
-elected in to kingship= prospective monarchs had to agree to share power with the Sejm in matters of taxation, foreign policy and military policy, and the appointment of state officials and judges
-power of Sejm= not so good result for monarchical authority
-acceptance of liberum veto in 1652 (meeting of the Sejm could be stopped by a single dissenting member)= reduced gov into chaos

34

stadholder

-responsible for leading the army and maintaining order

35

House of Orange

-occupied stadholderate in most of 7 provinces and favored the development of a centralized gov with themselves as the hereditary monarchs

36

States General

- assembly of representatives from every province
-opposed Orangist ambitions and advocated a decentralized or republican of of gov
-17th century= republican
-1672→ war with France and England → Dutch problems with finances and manpower = United Provinces turned to William III of Orange to establish monarchical regime
-he died without an heir→ back to republican
-1715= English shipping challenged Dutch commercial supremacy and Dutch experienced economic decline

37

Amsterdam

-replaced Antwerp as financial and commercial capital of Europe
-urban expansion plan
-expansion= b/c Amsterdam was the commercial and financial center of Europe
-merchants had vast fleets of ships; used for profitable North Sea herring catching
-fluyt
-Amsterdam’s prosperity→ importance as a financial center
-Exchange Bank of Amsterdam

38

fluyt

-Dutch invention; shallow-draft ship of large capacity
-enabled the transport of enormous amounts of cereals, timber, and iron

39

Rembrandt van Rijn

- painter in golden age of Dutch painting (17th century)
-early years= painted lavish portraits and grandiose scenes that were colorful
-but turned away from materialistic success to follow his own artistic path⇒ lost public support; died bankrupt
-Protestant painter
-didn’t do what other ppl did (secular paintings) when he grew older
-his paintings began to depict biblical scenes (biblical tales)