Chapter 14: Sociological Theories (Social Structural Theories) Pt. 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14: Sociological Theories (Social Structural Theories) Pt. 1 Deck (46):
1

__________ theories focus on “kinds of conditions” that enable and constrain criminal motivations.  

Sociological

2

Sociological theories focus on “_____ ___ __________” that enable and constrain criminal motivations.

"kinds of conditions"

3

Sociological theories have been developed to explain both the ________ and __________ of crime.

etiology
epidemiology

4

Sociological theories answer what kinds of questions?

(1) “why are some geographical areas more crime prone than others?”
(2) “what are the characteristics of these “hot spots” for crime?"
(3) “why are street crimes (i.e. murder, assaults, robbery, thefts predominantly a young male problem?”
(4) “how do socio-economic changes affect national and regional crime rates?”
(5) “what are the risk factors and social processes involved in the onset and persistence of criminal behavior?”

5

What does macro and micro level of sociological theories emphasize on?

Macro level, emphasizes how social structural conditions in the wider society to determine various types of human behavior.

Micro level, emphasizes how an individual’s criminal behavior is produced by the social psychological interactions with other people and the social processes that both enable and constrain criminal motivation

6

Macro level of sociological theories focuses on explaining ______ ______ across __________ ______ (i.e. countries, states, cities, neighborhoods).

crime rates
geographical units

7

______ level of sociological theories focuses on explaining crime rates across geographical units (i.e. countries, states, cities, neighborhoods).

Macro

8

What are some examples of macro level of sociological theories?

Social Structural Theories
-Social Disorganization Theory
-Anomie Theory
-Differential Opportunity Theory
Conflict Theories
-Instrumental/Structural Marxism
-Radical Feminism
-Power-Control Theories)

9

What are some examples of micro level theories?

-social process theories
-social learning approaches
-control theories
-interactionist/labeling theories

10

The final type of sociological theories focuses on the _______ ____ as the unit of analysis.

criminal act

11

What is the crime event perspective?

Crime event perspective- criminal acts require convergence of three necessary conditions in time and space

12

What are the three necessary conditions for the crime event perspective?

(1) a motivated offender
(2) a suitable target or victim
(3) a facilitating context for this act to occur

13

_____ ______ __________ is also known a “criminal opportunity” theories.

Crime event perspective

14

Crime event perspective is also known a “_______ __________” theories

"criminal opportunity"

15

What are examples of “criminal opportunity” theories?

-symbolic interactionist theories of deviant acts

-routine activity/lifestyles theories of criminal victimization

16

Social Structural Theories are based on the assumption that structural conditions in a society _______ and _________ human behavior.

enable
constrain

17

Some Social Structural Theories assume that the fundamental cause of crime is ________ ________.

cultural conflict

18

Some Social Structural Theories assume that we all share the same values but resort to criminal behavior because?

we are blocked from achieving this shared goal of material success through legitimate means

19

What are the best examples of social structural theories that attribute crime to cultural conflict or distinct values among different social groups?

(1) Shaw and Mckay’s social disorganization theory and the concentric zone theory of city structure

(2) Miller’s theory about the “focal concerns” of lower class boys

(3) Wolfgang and Ferracuti’s "subculture of violence" theory

20

What are the best examples of social structural theories that assume value consensus (that people share cultural values)?

(1) Merton’s anomie theory

(2) Cloward and Ohllin’s differential opportunity theory

21

What are the different type of social structural theories?

(1) Social Disorganization Theory
(2) Chicago Ecological School
(3) Walter Miller’s “Focal Concerns”
(4) The Subculture of Violence Theory and the “Code of the Street”
(5) Merton’s Anomie/Strain Theory

22

According to Social Disorganization Theory, what are the three social forces that creates high levels of crime in certain geographical areas?

(1) high population mobility/turnover
(2) low socio-economic opportunities
(3) racial/ethnic diversity

23

What is the solution for crime according to Social Disorganization Theory?

we increase the collective efficacy of these disadvantaged neighborhoods by community outreach activities, job fairs, improved educational services, and enhance the feelings of community pride and social integration within these neighborhoods

24

Who created the Concentric Zone Hypothesis

Park and Burgess, primary leaders of the Chicago Ecological School

25

Concentric Zone Hypothesis is also known as ______ hypothesis.

zonal

26

_________ ______ Hypothesis is also known as zonal hypothesis

Concentric Zone

27

What is Concentric Zone Hypothesis?

a theory of city development that explains the ecological structure of cities and the particular social forces and mechanisms that lead to higher rates of crime in particular locations within cities

28

What are the concentric zones from the inside out?

(1) Central Business District (CBD)
(2) Zone in transition (ZIT)
(3) Multiple unit dwellings (MUD)
(4) Single unit dwellings (SUD) 
(5) “Commuter Zone” (CZ)

29

Which centric zone is this:
the center of the city?

Central Business District (CBD)

30

Which centric zone is this:
where all major businesses (banks, stores) were initially located?

Central Business District (CBD)

31

Which centric zone is this:
the area directly surrounding the CBD

Zone in transition (ZIT)

32

Which centric zone is this:
often contains an industrial/factory district

Zone in transition (ZIT)

33

Which centric zone is this:
contains decaying buildings  and other physical structures that are on the verge on demolition or implosion

Zone in transition (ZIT)

34

Which centric zone is this:
the slum area of the city with many poor people

Zone in transition (ZIT)

35

Why do slums develop, in the Zone in transition (ZIT)?

(1) the rent is cheap
(2) they minimize their travel time to work in the CBD and industrial area by living close to it

36

Which centric zone is this:
is a natural area for crime and other types of deviance

Zone In Transition (ZIT)

37

Why is the Zone In Transition (ZIT) a natural area for crime and other types of deviance?

(1) it’s so close to the CBD where all expensive goods, financial business, and rich people are working 

(2) the ZIT is where most socially disadvantaged individuals live and where police only loosely patrol the outside boundaries of these areas

(3) the ZIT is characterized by social disorganization, the type of social conditions that are often thought to be associated with crime

38

What is multiple unit dwellings (MUD)?

an area of multiple unit dwelling and large apartment complexes

39

________ _____ ________ (_____) is also also known as “workingmen’s homes”.

Multiple unit dwellings (MUD)

40

Multiple unit dwellings (MUD) is also also known as “___________ ________”.

"workingmen’s homes"

41

What is single unit dwellings (SUD)?

an area of single unit dwellings and middle class single homes

42

Single unit dwellings (SUD) is also known as “__________ ______”.

residential zone

43

______ _____ _________ (____) is also known as “residential zone”.

Single unit dwellings (SUD)

44

“_________ ______” (___) is also known as “estate lot housing”.

Commuter Zone (CZ)

45

“Commuter Zone” (CZ) is also known as “________ ____ ________”.

"estate lot housing"

46

What are the several crime patterns identified by the early Chicago sociologists and ecologists between the 1920s and 1940s, that are still relevant?

(1) crime was highest in the ZIT and decreased as you moved outward to the other zones of the city 

(2) the distribution of crime across areas of the city are similar to the distribution of other social problems in these geographical areas 

(3) particular areas of cities (ZIT areas) remain “hot spots” for crime regardless of the think/racial profile of the residents

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