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The classical school of criminology translates into "________ ______" theory.

“rational choice”


What are the the statements/assumptions of classical criminology?

(1) all people have problems and we have the free will to seek out either conventional or illegal solutions 
(2) Criminal solutions to problems may be preferred over conventional solutions 
(3) the criminal solutions to one’s problems may be controlled by the threat of societal reaction (punishment)
(4) the more swift, certain, and severe the societal reaction (punishment) the more it will deter people from using criminal solutions 
(5) the most effect method of crime control is punishment that is of a sufficient magnitude to make crime an unattractive choice 


Why are criminal solutions to problems sometimes preferred over conventional solutions? 

(1) requires less effort and skill
(2) more immediate rewards 
(3) is exciting
(4) provides enticements that aren’t found within conventional behavior 


What was Beccaria’s contribution to classical criminology?

Beccaria’s model of justice


When was Beccaria's model used?

-was used until the late 1800s when the concept of rehabilitative justice came into play 

-it came back in the early 1970’s due to rehabilitation not working 


How does Beccaria's model work?

-check-and-balance system that separated law-making (legislative) and law-interpreting (judicial) branches of government 

-uniform scales of punishments and criminal acts, emphasizing that punishments should "fit the crime”


Neo-classical theory is also known as?

modern classical theory 


What is neo-classical theory?

it recognizes that the punishment should fit the crime, but it also allows for special circumstances of the offender in determining punishments


What are some major criticisms of classical criminology?

(1) failure to recognize that there is some amount of “determinism” underlying our behavior 
(2) failure to recognize the possibility that committing crime is a rational response for those who have limited economic


Is Crime a Rational or Irrational Choice?

crime may in fact be a rational choice for those in lower economic opportunities


Swift, certain, or severe which type of punishment is the most essential?



Swift, certain, or severe which type of punishment is the least essential?



Why does classical criminology remain popular?

-it doesn't challenge the status quo
-makes it seem like the system is fair

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