Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (48)
Who is the founding member of the Positive School of Criminology?
Cesare Lombroso (1835)
Cesare Lombroso was an _______ ________ and former ________.
_______ _________ was an Italian positivist and former surgeon.
Cesare Lombroso founded “________”.
_______ _________ founded “atavists”.
What is an “atavists”?
subhumans that were a biological throwback or reversion to our caveman ancestors
What are the characteristics of “atavists”?
(1) excessive hair
(2) huge foreheads
(3) big jaws
(4) swollen lips
(7) flared nostrils
(8) asymmetrical face
(9) beady and deep-set eyes
Who did Lombroso take influence from?
Charles Darwin’s idea of origin of species
According to Lombroso, what are the three types of criminals?
(1) Born Criminal
(2) Insane Criminal
What is the born criminals’ characteristics?
exhibits the traits of “atavists”
What is the insane criminals’ characteristics?
low intelligence and serious psychological problems/degeneracy
What is the criminaloids’ characteristics?
-no physical stigmata or signs of psychological degeneracy
-engages in criminal behavior due to situational and environmental factors
What is the most common type of criminal, according to Lombroso?
_______ _________ was the first person to systematically develop the idea that “biological structure determines social function”.
Cesare Lombroso was the first person to systematically develop the idea that “__________ ________ determines _______ ________”.
Cesare Lombroso established the value of ______-_______ ___________ for criminal behavior by examining how a wide variety of social and environmental factors.
_______ _________ established the value of multi-faceted explanations for criminal behavior by examining how a wide variety of social and environmental factors.
Who were Cesare Lombroso’s students?
(1) Enrico Ferri (1856-1909)
(2) Raffaele Garofalo (1852-1934
What was Enrico Ferri’s major contributions?
-his critique of the classical notion of “free will”
-his scientific investigation of the interrelationships between social, economic, and political factors and crime
According to Ferri, what are three major criminogenic (crime causing) factors?
(1) physical environment
(2) anthropological attributes
(3) social factors
What are some examples (Enrico Ferri's) physical environment of this?
an area’s structural attributes
What are some examples (Enrico Ferri's) anthropological attributes of this?
-(bodily) physical structure
What are some examples (Enrico Ferri's) social factors of this?
-nature of the government
What are some of Enrico Ferri's liberal ideas?
(1) free trade
(2) abolition of monopolies
(3) redistribution of wealth
(4) birth control
(5) freedom of divorce/marriage
(6) public assistance/recreation
________ ________ argued that society must eliminate those who have shown that they cannot adapt to civilized life.
Raffaele Garofalo argued that society must ________ those who have shown that they cannot _____ to civilized life.
________ _________ supported the death penalty or policies of segregation (deportation and/or isolation) to keep criminals from the gene pool.
Raffaele Garofalo supported the ______ _______ or policies of __________ (deportation and/or isolation) to keep criminals from the gene pool.
Raffaele Garofalo believed in ___________ __________.
________ _________ believed in psychological degeneracy.
According to Garofalo, what are the sources/determinants of crime?
(1) lower intellectual abilities
(2) psychological pathology/degeneracy
Aside from Lombroso, who was Raffaele Garofalo influenced by?
Darwin’s law of adaption and the principle of the survival of the fittest
Who referenced Garofalo's work and views during World War II?
Nazi and Fascist regimes of Germany and Italy
Cesare Lombroso set into motion the idea that your _________ ________ determines crime.
_______ _________ set into motion the idea that your biological structure determines crime.
According to Lombroso, biological structure determines ______ _______.
____% of criminals have some type of psychological problem.
Enrico Ferri believed in crime control through "______ _________".
______ _____ believed in crime control through "social betterment".
What two types of marriages did Enrico Ferri advocate?
(2) child with marriage
_______ countries tend to have high homicide rates.
Why do Catholic countries tend to have high homicide rates?
Could be due to laws against divorce
Raffaelle Garofalo, believed in _______ _____ type of government, in which you let things take it's course.
________ ________, believed in laissez faire type of government, in which you let things take it's course.
Which of Lombroso's students was into fascism?
Garofalo believed criminals were _____.
Garofalo argued for __________.