Chapter 13: Psychological Theories Pt. 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13: Psychological Theories Pt. 2 Deck (42):
1

What are the three types of learning theories?

(1) Classical Conditioning
(2) Operant Conditioning
(3) Social Learning

2

Is this classical or operant conditioning: focuses on how a particular response can be conditioned when it is paired with an otherwise neutral stimulus

Classical Conditioning

3

What are some examples of Classical Conditioning?

(1) Pavlov’s dog experiment, dogs were conditioned to salivate whenever they heard a bell 
(2) a drug addicts seeing drugs makes them crave them more.

4

How does a response to a neutral stimulus occur?

any neutral stimulus may ultimately elicit a conditioned physiological response as long as it has been consistently paired with another stimulus that previously triggered that same response 

5

Who created Operant Conditioning?

B.F. Skinner

6

What is Operant Conditioning?

organisms learn to act upon their environment by associating rewards and punishments with their own behavior

7

According to Operant Conditioning, organisms learn to act upon their environment by associating _______ and ___________ with their own behavior.

rewards
punishments

8

According to ________ __________, organisms learn to act upon their environment by associating rewards and punishments with their own behavior.

Operant Conditioning

9

According to Operant Conditioning what causes persistent criminal behavior of chronic juveniles and adult offenders?

caused by the rewards and reinforcements they get from their deviant behavior

10

Who created Social Learning?

Albert Bandura

11

What is social learning?

all human behavior may be reinforced not only through actual rewards and punishments, but also vicariously through the observation of other people’s behavior and its consequences for them

12

______ _______= operant conditioning + cognitive psychology.

Social learning

13

Social learning= ________ __________+ cognitive psychology.

operant conditioning

14

Social learning= operant conditioning + ________ ___________.

cognitive psychology

15

Social Learning emphasizes _________ _________.

behavior modeling

16

What constitutes as behavioral modeling?

(1) familial influences
(2) subcultural experiences from living in particular socio-economic environments
(3) symbolic models like the mass media that serve as sources for imitation and vicarious learning

17

One of Bandura’s basic ideas about social learning and social cognition when it comes to understanding criminal behavior:
humans have the capacity to exercise _______ over their thought processes, motivations, affect, and their own actions to produce certain

control

18

One of Bandura’s basic ideas about social learning and social cognition when it comes to understanding criminal behavior:
humans observe ___________ __________ throughout the life cycle in various forms

aggressive behavior

19

One of Bandura’s basic ideas about social learning and social cognition when it comes to understanding criminal behavior:
children acquire knowledge about the “_____ ___ ______”.

"rules of conduct"

20

One of Bandura’s basic ideas about social learning and social cognition when it comes to understanding criminal behavior:
whether or not __________ _________ are acted out depends on the anticipated rewards and punishments for various action plans

aggressive behaviors

21

One of Bandura’s basic ideas about social learning and social cognition when it comes to understanding criminal behavior:
whether or not aggressive behaviors are acted out depends on the anticipated ________ and ____________ for various action plans

rewards
punishments

22

One of Bandura’s basic ideas about social learning and social cognition when it comes to understanding criminal behavior:
children develop a more elaborate sense of the _____ ___ ________ _______ prescribed by society and tend to incorporate theses rules as guides for their own behavior

rules of aggressive conduct

23

One of Bandura's basic ideas about social learning and social cognition when it comes to understanding criminal behavior:
children develop a more elaborate sense of the rules of aggressive conduct prescribed by _______ and tend to __________ theses rules as guides for their own behavior

society
incorporate

24

What are the “rules of conduct”?

observing the consequences of aggression to others

25

Bandura used people’s life experiences and the concept of a cognitive “road map” to show how they influence?

(1) how to attack or counteract and its form
(2) which person or group is the appropriate target
(3) what actions by the provocateur justify or actually require aggressive retaliation
(4) what situations or contexts are the ones in which aggression is either appropriate or inappropriate

26

Criminogenic Traits and Other Risk Factors follows the methods of ________ _______.

positivist science

27

Criminogenic Traits and Other Risk Factors uses __________ ________ across different groups.

comparative research

28

What are the strongest psychological correlations to criminal behavior?

-impulsivity
-high sensation seeking
-high psychotics
-learning disabilities
attention deficiency and hyperactivity (ADH)
-low empathy
-negative affectivity
-low delayed gratification

29

What is a criminal psychopath?

people who are viewed as aggressive, dangerous, and anti-social individuals who act in a callous manner and exhibit several basic personality characteristics

30

The existence of a “criminal personality” has been advanced by who?

Stanton Samenow and Samuel Yochelson

31

What did Samenow and Yochelson’s advancement of the “criminal personality” suggest?

that this criminal personality is primarily inherited and consists of individuals who are aggressive, “blood thirsty”, angry, thrill-seekers that don’t trust anyone

32

Does the “criminal personality” exist?

There is no evidence that a criminal personality exists

33

Why are psychological theories popular theories of crime causation?

(1) focuses on the etiology of crime and the use of these theories has lead to the development of a wide list of “risk factors” for criminal behavior 

(2) most useful as explanations of the behavior of deeply disturbed, impulsive, and destructive people

34

Which type of psychological theory is especially relevant to the study of criminality?

social learning

35

What are the major limitations of psychological theories?

(1) these stories as a group are unable to explain or account for the epidemiology of crime

(2) psychological tests that identify particular personality traits that are presumably risk factors form criminal behavior are often not very predictive of one's future criminal behavior

36

What are the different types of pathways to adult criminality?

persisters and desisters

37

Theories of _______ ______ explain the “age-crime curve”.

impulse control

38

Theories of impulse control explain the “____-_____ _____".

"age-crime curve"

39

What is the “age-crime curve”?

people growing out of crime

40

Are most juveniles desisters or persisters?

most juveniles are desisters

41

What percentage of juveniles become persisters?

about 5%

42

What are the characteristics of adult persisters?

-early stages of developmental disabilities
-early delinquency, start crime early
-nutrition and prenatal laking

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