Flashcards in Chapter 17: Sociological Theories (Crime Events and Criminal Opportunity) Deck (12)
The origins of the "crime event" perspective are in the works of ________ ___________ and social ecologists.
What is the “criminal opportunity theories”?
emphasize how the opportunity for criminal acts is generated by the particular characteristics of the persons, places, and situations that underlie these contexts for crime
Daily routine activities and personal lifestyles affect criminal opportunities, because they affect the convergence in time and space of what three elements of predatory offense?
(1) exposure to motivated offenders
(2) suitable targets
(3) absence of guardianship
(4) facilitating places
(5) facilitating hardware
How are people exposed to motivated offenders?
both your physical proximity to criminals and your daily routine activities that place you in close contact with them
What are some examples being exposed to motivated offenders?
-living in a high-crime neighborhood
-having roommates/spouses/neighbors that are criminals
-having a dangerous job (police, prison guard, cabdriver, nighttime convince store worker
-hanging out in particular areas at night
How are suitable target determined?
a subjective judgement based on an offender’s personal preferences and the type of criminal activity
What are the characteristics of a suitable target?
(1) being more attractive (to victimization)
(6) hiving high liquidity
What is guardianship?
the ability of persons or objects to prevent the occurrence of crime
What is the difference between social and physical guardianship?
social guardianship-involves having other people around you may prevent criminal acts against you by their mere presence or by providing assistance to you in warding off an attack
physical guardianship-various types of target-hardening activities, other physical impediments to household theft (street lights and guarded entrances), and participation in collective activities (neighborhood watch
What are facilitating places?
are particular types of physical settings and mix-environments that facilitate the occurrence of criminal acts
What is facilitating hardware?
involves visible, accessible, and available objects that are used in the threat or commission of many violent acts