Flashcards in Chapter 5 Pt. 1 Deck (32):
Why is having an accurate measure of the true nature of crime important?
(1) Enables police departments to allocate resources to fight crime by showing the “hot spots” of criminal behavior and any risk factors associated with it
(2) accurate data helps criminologists evaluate the utility of criminological theories
(3) citizens can have a reasonable estimate of their risks of victimization
Victimization surveys and self-report studies prove what correlation between the lower class and crime?
lower class people in the U.S. are not necessarily more crime prone than other social classes
What are the three distinct approaches to crime?
(1) the use of official crime statistics compiled by police departments
(i.e.- the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) )
(2) Self-Report Studies
(3) Victimization surveys
Who created the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and why?
Were created by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the early 1930s in order to provide a uniform measure of crime across different jurisdictions.
What is Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) based on?
based on reports from police agencies across the country, which are given to and compiled by the FBI annually
True or False: giving information for the Uniform Crime Report (UCR) is not voluntary
False; it is voluntary
The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) cover ___% of police agencies across the country for any given year. (Although this can be misleading).
How accurate are the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)?
It is the best estimate law enforcement can give, because most crimes are not know to the police
How does the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) divide offenses?
Part 1 Offenses
Part 2 Offenses
What are Part 1 Offenses?
(1) violent crimes (murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assaults)
(2) property crimes (burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, arson).
Which type of crimes are the primary focus in Part 1 Offenses of UCR data?
Most of the Part 1 offenses known to the police are ________ crimes.
the single most prevalent property crime according to UCR is _______-_____ .
According to UCR data (2011); Over 750,000 _________ _________, about 350,000 _________, about 15,000 ________, and 83,000 ______ were known to law enforcement.
According to UCR data (2011); _______ crimes have a far higher clearance rate than property crimes
According to UCR data (2011); _______ and _________ _________ have the highest clearance rates among all Part 1 Offenses.
Why do murders and aggravated assaults have the highest clearance rates among all Part 1 Offenses?
(1) greater pressure on police departments to “solve”
(2) most murders and aggravated assaults involve family members and friends/acquaintances homicides
(3)offenders are more likely to call the police and report these crimes themselves
According to UCR data (2011); most arrests in the U.S. are for Part __ offenses.
Out of all the arrests for Part 2 Offenses, ________-related offenses are the highest with _____ related offenses coming in second
According to UCR data (2011), how have crime rates changed over time:
crime rates increased over the ______ and peaked in the early ______, dropping until the mid ______, increased again until early _______, followed by step decline
Why has there been a rise in violent crimes throughout the 1960s?
(1) the theory of legitimation of violence
(2) a rise in juvenile gang activities in major U.S. cities in the 1960s
(3) an increased availability of handguns in this time period
(4) changes in the age structure, with more people in the crime-prone age group of 18 to 24 years old
(5) changes in routine activities and lifestyles in the 1960s
Violent Crime rates tend to be higher in the _________ and ________ States.
Violent Crime rates tend to be higher in areas with greater __________ _______.
Violent Crime rates tend to be higher in ________ months.
________ crime rates exhibit less dramatic differences by region of the country, population density, and seasonality
Gender differences shown in UCR data shows that; ______ are over-represented for every Part 1 Offense and most of Part 2 Offenses.
Gender differences shown in UCR data shows that; males are over-represented for every Part __ Offense and most of Part __ Offenses
Gender differences shown in UCR data shows that; the only offense in which females are over represented in comparison to men is ___________.
Gender differences shown in UCR data shows that; males account for 80% of those arrested for ______ crime and 63% of those arrested for _______ crimes.
According to UCR data (2011): males account for 80% of those arrested for violent crime and 63% of those arrested for property crimes
Why is this?
(1) biological explanations
(2) sociological factors
(3) police biases in arrests
According to UCR data (2011), what are the differences in age?
the peak age for criminal behavior ranges from 18 to 24 years old