Flashcards in Chapter 21: Personal and Institutional Robbery Part 2 Deck (34)
Which locations have the best “take” for robberies?
banks and other financial institutions
Which location has the worst “take” for robberies?
What is the ranking of specific robbery locations on the basis of the average value of the items stolen per incident?
(1) banks ($4,704)
(2) commercial houses ($1,783)
(3) residences ($1,489)
(4) gas or service stations ($890)
(5) street/highway ($785)
(6) convenience stores ($667)
What is the average “take” in 2011 for all types of robberies combined?
What are some of the non-financial reasons for robbery?
(1) the thrill/excitement or “rush”
(2) status-enhancing by displaying one’s masculinity and toughness to other delinquents
(3) a sense of empowerment
___% of robbery victims sustained physical injuries in these attacks
___% of the time the injuries (from robberies) were significant enough to warrant treatment at a hospital or an emergency room
___% victim injury in robberies involving non-stranger
___% victim injury in robberies involving strangers
47% victim injury in robberies involving ___-______
31% victim injury in robberies involving ________
Why there such a high rate of injury in non-stranger robbery?
(1) non-strangers are more likely to engage in resistance and self-protection against known parties
(2) victims are more willing to define forcible thefts by non-stranger as actual robberies when they are injured in these incidents
Primary types of self-protection by percentage:
“resisted or captured the offender”___%
“persuaded or appeased offender” ___%
“ran away or hid” ___%
“attacked the offender” ___%
___% of the persons arrested for robbery received a felony conviction
___% of convicted robbers were given a prison sentence
46% of the persons arrested for robbery received a ______ conviction
73% of convicted robbers were given a ______ ________
The average maximum sentence for robbery offenders was about ___ years
What is potential deterrent value of criminal sanctions for robbery offenders?
(1) the majority of robberies are not known to the police
(2) only about 29% of robberies known to the police are cleared by an arrest
What is Situational Crime Prevention (SCP)?
involves a variety of activities that are designed to reduce criminal opportunities by increasing the costs and reducing the benefits to offenders
What are the particular types of SCP strategies pertaining to?
(1) Street Muggers
(2) Convenience Store Robberies
(3) Bank Robbery
What is the typical type of street mugger?
a young male who works alone and preys on isolated individuals in open public places
When do street muggers tend to commit crime?
at night to hide identity, and there are fewer bystanders
What is the modus operandi of street muggers?
What is a “blitz attack”?
i.e. walking up from behind someone and snatching their purse
How do street muggers select targets?
they use “bounded rationality”
What is “bounded rationality”?
they tend to pick people who are alone, less capable of resistance, easily accessible, and perceived as having portable/liquidable things worth stealing
Some robbers give a “_______ ______”
What is a “parting shot”?
hitting/shooting them while they are leaving
What are the SCP strategies for decreasing Street Muggers?
(1) increasing social guardianship
(2) more street lighting
(3) removing physical objects that provide cover for offenders and reduce visibility/survivability of public spaces by bystanders
(4) greater police canvassing of “hot spots”
(5) being more observant of their own behavior when in particular public places at night
What are the several aspects of convenience stores that contribute to their attractiveness as crime targets?
(1) they are visible and easily accessible targets, often located along major transportation arteries that provide immediate escape routes
(2) the small physical size of most convenience stores provides potential robbers an environment that can be easily scoped for electronic surveillance equipment and/or the presence of other customers, and it has multiple items worth stealing
(3) the limited number of co-workers to prevent crime
(4) the use of a cash register that places valuable within a well-defined space behind the counter
(5) the physical design of a straight pathway from the counter to the front door that allows robbers a clear and direct escape route
What are the SCP strategies for Convenience Store Robberies?
(1) changing the physical environment of these places to increase target hardening
(2) increase physical guardianship
(3) reduce the potential yield from offenders
What are some of the ways that SCP strategies for Convenience Store Robberies have been implemented in real world?
(1) installing cash drop boxes to reduce the actual economic losses from these crimes
(2) adding staff and better surveillance equipment to increase offender’s perceived risks of getting caught
(3) move counters away from the front door to reduce blitz attacks
What do bank robbers do when they have multiple/co-offenders?
they created specialized role each offender
When is a “blitz attack” considered?
a “blitz attack” is only considered when there are multiple offenders
What is the profile of bank robbery?
greater level of planning and the greater frequency of co-offenders in the commission of the crime
What are some of the SCP strategies for Bank Robbery?
(1) many banks now contain full glass partitions
(2) Full‐length bars have also been added to reduce the “jump over the counter” and other blitz attacks
(3) The greater use of electronic surveillance/monitoring
(4) increased training of bank security officers
(5) the redesign of bank access point