Chapter 21: Personal and Institutional Robbery Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 21: Personal and Institutional Robbery Part 1 Deck (47)
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1

What is robbery?

the taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or putting the victim in fear

2

What are the subcategories of robbery?

(1) location of the robbery
(2) type of weapon
(3) type of victim
(4) institutional robberies

3

When using police data to estimate the prevalence and nature of robbery, what are the sources of definitional ambiguity that need to be considered?

(1) What constitutes a “threat” or “attempted” robbery is subject to diverse interpretation

(2) Variability in how particular police officers and departments make distinction between various types of personal robberies and other types of larceny/theft

(3) The hierarchical rule used in the recording of UCR incidents, counting only the most serious offense in a criminal incident

4

What establishments specifically have a long history of targets for robbery?

Banks

5

Some acts of _________ are another type of robbery situation.

extortion

6

The robbery rate in 2011 represents the lowest rate in the U.S. since the mid ______s.

1960s

7

Both UCR data on robbery _______ rates and NCVS data on robbery ___________ rates show a similar pattern of reductions in robbery rates over the last two decades.

offense
victimization

8

Far less than 2% of U.S. households are “touched” by a ________ each year

robbery

9

cities in ______ ___________ areas have substantially higher robbery rates than cities outside these areas and those in non metropolitan counties

large metropolitan

10

Which region of the U.S. has the highest number of robberies?

South has the highest number of robberies

11

Which region of the U.S. has the highest rate of robbery?

Northeast has the highest rate of robbery

12

What are the characteristics of the average robber?

(1) males
(2) under 25 years old
(3) African Americans

13

_____ are arrested offenders in about 88% of all robberies known to the police

males

14

males are arrested offenders in about 88% of all _________ known to the police

robberies

15

___% of robbery arrestees are under 25 years old.

63%

16

56% of arrestees for robbery are _______-_________

African-Americans

17

The vast majority of _______ defendants had a prior felony arrest

robbery

18

_______ are more likely to have a prior felony record than murders, rapists, and aggravated assaulters.

Robbers

19

What is the modus operandi, of street-level muggers and many carjackings?

primarily opportunistic criminals who become motivated by immediate situational cues

20

What is the modus operandi of bank robberies and other type of institutional robberies?

planning and calculation, involves making a series of decisions before engaging in robbery about

21

What is the planning process for bank robbers and other institutional robberies?

(1) when and where to commit the crime

(2) the type of targets to select

(3) planning ways to subdue the victim

(4) the type of weapon that will be used or threatened

(5) how to conceal one’s identity and avoid detection on video surveillance

(6) some contemplation about alternative escape routes if the original plans run amuck

22

What are the characteristics for attractive institutional and bank robberies?

(1) high visibility and high accessibility

(2) low protection or guardianship

(3) high portability and liquidity of the stolen goods

23

Which gender has a higher risk of robbery victimization?

men

24

Why do men have a higher risk of robbery victimization than women?

(1) for both completed and attempted robberies

(2) for both robberies with and without victim injury

25

Robbery victimization risks are highest for what age group?

21-24 years olds

26

Robbery victimization risks are the lowest for what age group?

65 or older

27

The risks of robbery victimization are nearly twice as high for ______ than Whites

Blacks

28

Robbery rates are about also slightly higher for __________ than non-Hispanics

Hispanics

29

_________ were the offenders in 75% of all personal robberies and in a higher proportion of those were _________ (86%) than __________ (71%)

Strangers
attempted
completed

30

Why is “strange danger” in robbery overestimated?

(1) forcible thefts involving family members or ex-partners are often considered “private matters” and not typically reported/recorded in either NCVS or UCR data

(2) many street robberies of persons engaged in illegal activities are not typically reported to the police and these types of people are rarely included in victimization surveys

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