Flashcards in Chapter 14: Sociological Theories (Social Structural Theories) Pt. 1 Deck (46)
__________ theories focus on “kinds of conditions” that enable and constrain criminal motivations.
Sociological theories focus on “_____ ___ __________” that enable and constrain criminal motivations.
"kinds of conditions"
Sociological theories have been developed to explain both the ________ and __________ of crime.
Sociological theories answer what kinds of questions?
(1) “why are some geographical areas more crime prone than others?”
(2) “what are the characteristics of these “hot spots” for crime?"
(3) “why are street crimes (i.e. murder, assaults, robbery, thefts predominantly a young male problem?”
(4) “how do socio-economic changes affect national and regional crime rates?”
(5) “what are the risk factors and social processes involved in the onset and persistence of criminal behavior?”
What does macro and micro level of sociological theories emphasize on?
Macro level, emphasizes how social structural conditions in the wider society to determine various types of human behavior.
Micro level, emphasizes how an individual’s criminal behavior is produced by the social psychological interactions with other people and the social processes that both enable and constrain criminal motivation
Macro level of sociological theories focuses on explaining ______ ______ across __________ ______ (i.e. countries, states, cities, neighborhoods).
______ level of sociological theories focuses on explaining crime rates across geographical units (i.e. countries, states, cities, neighborhoods).
What are some examples of macro level of sociological theories?
Social Structural Theories
-Social Disorganization Theory
-Differential Opportunity Theory
What are some examples of micro level theories?
-social process theories
-social learning approaches
The final type of sociological theories focuses on the _______ ____ as the unit of analysis.
What is the crime event perspective?
Crime event perspective- criminal acts require convergence of three necessary conditions in time and space
What are the three necessary conditions for the crime event perspective?
(1) a motivated offender
(2) a suitable target or victim
(3) a facilitating context for this act to occur
_____ ______ __________ is also known a “criminal opportunity” theories.
Crime event perspective
Crime event perspective is also known a “_______ __________” theories
What are examples of “criminal opportunity” theories?
-symbolic interactionist theories of deviant acts
-routine activity/lifestyles theories of criminal victimization
Social Structural Theories are based on the assumption that structural conditions in a society _______ and _________ human behavior.
Some Social Structural Theories assume that the fundamental cause of crime is ________ ________.
Some Social Structural Theories assume that we all share the same values but resort to criminal behavior because?
we are blocked from achieving this shared goal of material success through legitimate means
What are the best examples of social structural theories that attribute crime to cultural conflict or distinct values among different social groups?
(1) Shaw and Mckay’s social disorganization theory and the concentric zone theory of city structure
(2) Miller’s theory about the “focal concerns” of lower class boys
(3) Wolfgang and Ferracuti’s "subculture of violence" theory
What are the best examples of social structural theories that assume value consensus (that people share cultural values)?
(1) Merton’s anomie theory
(2) Cloward and Ohllin’s differential opportunity theory
What are the different type of social structural theories?
(1) Social Disorganization Theory
(2) Chicago Ecological School
(3) Walter Miller’s “Focal Concerns”
(4) The Subculture of Violence Theory and the “Code of the Street”
(5) Merton’s Anomie/Strain Theory
According to Social Disorganization Theory, what are the three social forces that creates high levels of crime in certain geographical areas?
(1) high population mobility/turnover
(2) low socio-economic opportunities
(3) racial/ethnic diversity
What is the solution for crime according to Social Disorganization Theory?
we increase the collective efficacy of these disadvantaged neighborhoods by community outreach activities, job fairs, improved educational services, and enhance the feelings of community pride and social integration within these neighborhoods
Who created the Concentric Zone Hypothesis
Park and Burgess, primary leaders of the Chicago Ecological School
Concentric Zone Hypothesis is also known as ______ hypothesis.
_________ ______ Hypothesis is also known as zonal hypothesis
What is Concentric Zone Hypothesis?
a theory of city development that explains the ecological structure of cities and the particular social forces and mechanisms that lead to higher rates of crime in particular locations within cities
What are the concentric zones from the inside out?
(1) Central Business District (CBD)
(2) Zone in transition (ZIT)
(3) Multiple unit dwellings (MUD)
(4) Single unit dwellings (SUD)
(5) “Commuter Zone” (CZ)
Which centric zone is this:
the center of the city?
Central Business District (CBD)