Flashcards in Chapter 26: Criminal Sanctions and Punishment Pt. 1 Deck (56)
What are the purposes of criminal sanctions?
(1) serve to reinforce cherished values and beliefs
(2) incapacitate and deter those who are thinking about criminal misconduct
(3) maintain power relations in a society
(4) eliminate threats to the prevailing social order
(5) instrumental and symbolic value
How are criminal sanctions both instrumental and symbolic?
(1) dramatizing certain behaviors in a society
(2) enhance communal solidarity against external threats
(3) provide the means for social engineering efforts directed at improving the quality of life
What are the different types criminal sanctions?
(1) Economic Punishments
(2) Incapacitative Sanctions
(3) Corporal Punishments
What are Economic punishments?
direct financial consequences to offenders
Economic punishments include things like _________, _________ and/or _________ ________.
What types of crimes usually receive economic punishments?
(1) white collar crimes
(2) traffic violations and less serious criminal offenses
Particular monetary amount can also be paid in exchange for a ____ or ______ sentence
_____ can be imposed in addition to other sentences
What type of economic punishments can corporate/organization crime receive?
(2) cease and desist orders
(3) revocation of licenses
What is asset forfeiture?
assets are given to the government
What is asset forfeiture primarily used for?
the prosecution of drug offenders and organized crime syndicates
Asset forfeiture can be used as a response to ______ _________ off of illegal activities
What are Incapacitative Sanctions?
physically restrain behavioral patterns
What are the different types of Incapacitative Sanctions?
(2) physical restraints on the body
(3) incapacitative structures
(4) short-term incapacitation and probation
What is an old example of banishment/exile/deportation?
England used “transportation” to colonies
What is a new example of banishment/exile/deportation?
deportation of “illegal aliens”
Physical restraints on the body are used for both ___________ and ________ __________.
What are some examples of physical restraints on the body?
chains, stocks, and yokes
What is the most recent form of physical restraints on the body?
electronic monitoring though ankle bracelets, handcuffs, and finger cuffs
What are some examples of short-term incapacitation and probation?
(1) shock incarceration
(2) supervised probation
What is shock incarceration?
a temporary incapacitation program in which the convicted offender is given a brief period of confinement in an institution and then released back into the community
What is supervised probation?
a type of incapacitative sanction that involves conditions of confinement placed on the probationer’s body
Which countries have the highest incarceration rates?
(1) United States
(2) Russian Federation
(3) St. Kitts and Nevis
What is the problem with international (incarcerate rates) comparison?
(1) different countries may use different definitions of “incarceration”
(2) incarceration structures/facilities that seriously history the reported incarceration rate
What is corporal punishment?
involve death or physical suffering through the direct application of physical force on the human body
What is the philosophical rationale for corporal punishments?
(2) specific and general deterrence
Particular types of corporal punishment are linked to?
(3) the availability of technology within particular countries at particular times
What are the various outcomes of corporal punishments?
(1) short-term pain
(2) permanent disfiguration and injury
What are the most infamous periods of corporal punishment?
(1) Spanish Inquisition
(2) Reign of Henry VIII
(3) Elizabethan period in England
(4) “reign of terror”, French Revolution
(5) Puritan settlements
(6) mass genocides and democides of the 20th century