Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (42):
What is a theory?
a set of propositions
The value of a theory it:
-explains ________ of criminal behavior (onset)
-explains ___________ of crime (distribution)
-explains _________ of criminal acts (outcome)
The value of a theory it:
-explains etiology of criminal behavior (______)
-explains epidemiology of crime (___________)
-explains occurrence of criminal acts (_______)
What are the type of theories focused on the etiology of crime?
biological and psychological theories
What are the type of theories focused on the epidemiology of crime?
What are the “theories of crime events”?
why a particular incident occurred at a particular place and time?
What is criminality?
recurrent patterns of one’s criminal propensity
What is situational crime prevention?
how to make your property less attractive, accessible, available, and portable for potential offenders
Most criminologists focus on ________, and there has been a growing interest in situational crime prevention strategies in the last two decades.
Most criminologists focus on criminality, and there has been a growing interest in __________ ______ _________ strategies in the last two decades.
situational crime prevention
What are the three paradigms (or schools) or criminological thought?
(1) Classical School
(2) Positivist School
(3) Radical/Conflict School
According to the classical school; what produces human behavior?
free will and rational choice
According to the classical school; what guides human behavior?
the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain
According to the classical school; what is the solution to crime?
to design a system of swift, certain, and severe punishments in order to make crime look unattractive
The positivist school of criminology emerged from the works of people like?
What is the difference between "soft" and "hard" determinism?
"soft determinism" states that very little outside forces affect one's free will.
"hard" determinism states that virtually no free will, but influence from outside factors.
Determinism can be based on _________, psychological, sociological, economic, or environmental factors.
Determinism can be based on biological, ___________, sociological, economic, or environmental factors.
Determinism can be based on biological, psychological, __________, economic, or environmental factors.
Determinism can be based on biological, psychological, sociological, _________, or environmental factors.
Determinism can be based on biological, psychological, sociological, economic, or ___________ factors.
Radical/Conflict School focuses on the relationship between _____ and the wider structure of a _______.
According to Radical/Conflict School; why is crime an inevitable consequence?
crime as an inevitable consequence of the unequal distribution of power and wealth in class-based societies
According to Radical/Conflict School; how is crime socially constructed?
social reality of crime is socially constructed to legitimize the predatory acts of the powerful and criminalize these same actions by lower class members
According to Radical/Conflict School; how are socially disadvantaged (i.e. ethnic/racial minorities, women, the poor) groups viewed?
Radical/Conflict School addresses the relationship between _____ _________ and _____.
Radical/Conflict School addresses the role that __________ plays in the _________ of crime.
Radical/Conflict School addresses the sources of __________ and __________ biases within the ________ _______ system.
Which school of criminology is the most recent?
Which type of school of criminology is this: try hard enough and you can overcome?
Which type of school of criminology is this: free-choice?
Which type of school of criminology is this: determinism?
Which type of school of criminology is this: sort of the underdog criminology?
Which type of school of criminology is this: also talk about determinism, but in an underdog approach?
Is this "soft" or "hard" determinism: if you try hard "maybe" you can overcome societal obstacles
Is this "soft" or "hard" determinism: no matter what you do you cannot overcome societal obstacles
Which school of criminology is this: free choices made by free people
Which school of criminology is this: risks factors that we can measure
Which school of criminology is this: develop a punishment to make crime an unattractive choice
Which school of criminology is this: understand what the risk factors are and apply them to crime control
Which school of criminology is this: to understand criminal behavior (biological, sociological, psychological causes)