Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

Criminal Justice 270- Intro to Criminology > Chapter 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (42):
1

What is a theory?

a set of propositions 

2

The value of a theory it:
-explains ________ of criminal behavior (onset)
-explains ___________ of crime (distribution)
-explains _________ of criminal acts (outcome)

etiology
epidemiology
occurrence

3

The value of a theory it:
-explains etiology of criminal behavior (______)
-explains epidemiology of crime (___________)
-explains occurrence of criminal acts (_______)

onset
distribution
outcome

4

What are the type of theories focused on the etiology of crime?

biological and psychological theories

5

What are the type of theories focused on the epidemiology of crime?

sociological theories 

6

What are the “theories of crime events”?

why a particular incident occurred at a particular place and time?

7

What is criminality?

recurrent patterns of one’s criminal propensity 

8

What is situational crime prevention?

how to make your property less attractive, accessible, available, and portable for potential offenders

9

Most criminologists focus on ________, and there has been a growing interest in situational crime prevention strategies in the last two decades.

criminality

10

Most criminologists focus on criminality, and there has been a growing interest in __________ ______ _________ strategies in the last two decades.

situational crime prevention

11

What are the three paradigms (or schools) or criminological thought?

(1) Classical School
(2) Positivist School
(3) Radical/Conflict School

12

According to the classical school; what produces human behavior?

free will and rational choice

13

According to the classical school; what guides human behavior?

the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain

14

According to the classical school; what is the solution to crime?

to design a system of swift, certain, and severe punishments in order to make crime look unattractive

15

The positivist school of criminology emerged from the works of people like?

Charles Darwin

16

What is the difference between "soft" and "hard" determinism?

"soft determinism" states that very little outside forces affect one's free will.
"hard" determinism states that virtually no free will, but influence from outside factors.

17

Determinism can be based on _________, psychological, sociological, economic, or environmental factors.

biological

18

Determinism can be based on biological, ___________, sociological, economic, or environmental factors.

psychological

19

Determinism can be based on biological, psychological, __________, economic, or environmental factors.

sociological

20

Determinism can be based on biological, psychological, sociological, _________, or environmental factors.

economic

21

Determinism can be based on biological, psychological, sociological, economic, or ___________ factors.

environmental

22

Radical/Conflict School focuses on the relationship between _____ and the wider structure of a _______.

crime
society

23

According to Radical/Conflict School; why is crime an inevitable consequence?

crime as an inevitable consequence of the unequal distribution of power and wealth in class-based societies

24

According to Radical/Conflict School; how is crime socially constructed?

social reality of crime is socially constructed to legitimize the predatory acts of the powerful and criminalize these same actions by lower class members

25

According to Radical/Conflict School; how are socially disadvantaged (i.e. ethnic/racial minorities, women, the poor) groups viewed?

as victims 

26

Radical/Conflict School addresses the relationship between _____ _________ and _____.

free enterprise
crime

27

Radical/Conflict School addresses the role that __________ plays in the _________ of crime.

government
construction

28

Radical/Conflict School addresses the sources of __________ and __________ biases within the ________ _______ system.

systematic
institutional
criminal justice

29

Which school of criminology is the most recent?

Radical/Conflict School

30

Which type of school of criminology is this: try hard enough and you can overcome?

Classical School

31

Which type of school of criminology is this: free-choice?

Classical School

32

Which type of school of criminology is this: determinism?

Positivist School

33

Which type of school of criminology is this: sort of the underdog criminology?

Radical/Conflict School

34

Which type of school of criminology is this: also talk about determinism, but in an underdog approach?

Radical/Conflict School

35

Is this "soft" or "hard" determinism: if you try hard "maybe" you can overcome societal obstacles

soft determinism

36

Is this "soft" or "hard" determinism: no matter what you do you cannot overcome societal obstacles

hard determinism

37

Which school of criminology is this: free choices made by free people

Classical School

38

Which school of criminology is this: risks factors that we can measure

Positivist School

39

Which school of criminology is this: develop a punishment to make crime an unattractive choice

Classical School

40

Which school of criminology is this: understand what the risk factors are and apply them to crime control

Positivist School

41

Which school of criminology is this: to understand criminal behavior (biological, sociological, psychological causes)

Positivist School

42

Which school of criminology is this: extract and administer plan

Classical School

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