Flashcards in Chapter 19: Violent Crime in U.S. History (Homicide and Aggravated Assault) Part 3 Deck (33):
51% of the victims of homicide are _____, 47% are ______, and the remaining 2% are “_______ ______”.
___% of the victims of homicide are Black, ___% are white, and the remaining __% are “other races”.
The victim and the offender are the same race ___% of homicides.
___% of homicide victims are under 25yrs old.
24% of homicide victims and offenders are ______ ________.
The killings of _____ is about 4 times more common than killing of _________
54% of homicides involve ___________
22% of homicides involve _________
Who has the greatest risk of aggravated assault victimization?
(2) young (18-24)
What are the major exceptions of this “age homogeneity” pattern of homicides and aggravated assaults?
(1) child homicides, in which the killer is typically a parent
(2) robbery homicides in which younger offenders many kill older victims in street muggings and robberies of convenes stores
What is victim precipitation?
situations in which the victim is the first person to resort to physical force that ultimately leads to their death
What percentage of victim precipitation is found in homicide and aggravated assaults?
20%-50% in homicide
10%-25% in aggravated assaults
What is the correlation between crime and occupation?
about two million people in the U.S. are victims of violent crime in the workplace every year
What are the 3 necessary elements for homicide and assault?
(1) an offender
(2) a victim
(3) a situational context for the crime
What are the various situational contexts for crime?
(1) physical settings (i.e. dangerous places, dangerous times)
(2) offense attributes (i.e. weapon use, co-offenders, alcohol/drug use)
(3) the nature of interpersonal dynamics between the parties
What are the situational elements in homicide and aggravated assaults?
(1) Dangerous Places
(2) Dangerous Times
(3) Offense Attributes
(4) Interpersonal Dynamics
What is the most dangerous location for homicides and aggravated assaults?
the physical space in and around the victim’s home
Why is this the ,physical space in and around the victim’s home, dangerous location for homicides and aggravated assaults?
(1) people spend more time at their home than any other location
(2) most violent offenders victimize family members and other known parties who live with or near them
(3) the closed physical structure of homes and norms of privacy often prevent outsiders from early intervention in domestic disputes before they become murders and aggravated assaults
What are the primary “hot spots” for physical assaults by strangers?
-other entertainment establishments
Why are these locations (bars, other entertainment establishments, parking lots, and subway/bus stops) dangerous?
(1) one’s visibility and accessibility to strangers in these locations
(2) the greater likelihood of victims being alone
(3) the consumption of alcohol in bars and other entertainment establishments which may weaken inhibitions and impede judgments
What is the FBI’s “Crime Clock”?
a homicide occurs every 36 minutes, an aggravated assault occurs every 42 seconds
What is the “Crime Clock” trying to suggest, is it’s suggestion right or wrong?
suggests that acts of serious physical violence are uniform over time, which is wrong
What times are considered dangerous times?
(1) Nighttime Hours
(3) Summer Months
(4) (Some) Holidays
What times are considered nighttime hours?
6pm to 6am
Why are nighttime hours more dangerous than daytime hours?
(1) greater constraints/regulations imposed (during the day) by either work or school schedules
(2) the cover of darkness at night may encourage the likelihood of criminal behavior
What day(s) of the weekend are considered the most dangerous?
Friday and Saturday nights
Why is there more crime on weekends?
higher levels of leisure activity on weekends
Why are there higher rates of violence during the summer?
(1) the higher levels of public leisure activity in summer months
(2) the adverse effects of heat and crowding on human behavior
What are the adverse effects of heat and crowding on human behavior?
(1) increased frustration/irritability, (which increases aggression)
(2) in areas with moderate winters and extremely hot summers, this is less dramatic
There is no evidence of “______ ______”
What is “cabin fever”?
the belief that high rates of domestic violence in within months in extremely cold and snow-bound areas because the cold keep people from leaving their homes and domestic abuse occurs
Which holidays are especially dangerous?
Thanksgiving and Christmas