Chapter 19: Violent Crime in U.S. History (Homicide and Aggravated Assault) Part 3 Flashcards Preview

Criminal Justice 270- Intro to Criminology > Chapter 19: Violent Crime in U.S. History (Homicide and Aggravated Assault) Part 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 19: Violent Crime in U.S. History (Homicide and Aggravated Assault) Part 3 Deck (33):
1

51% of the victims of homicide are _____, 47% are ______, and the remaining 2% are “_______ ______”.

Black
white
"other races"

2

___% of the victims of homicide are Black, ___% are white, and the remaining __% are “other races”.

51%
47%
2%

3

The victim and the offender are the same race ___% of homicides.

87%

4

___% of homicide victims are under 25yrs old.

35%

5

24% of homicide victims and offenders are ______ ________.

family members

6

The killings of _____ is about 4 times more common than killing of _________

wives
husbands

7

54% of homicides involve ___________

acquaintance

8

22% of homicides involve _________

strangers

9

Who has the greatest risk of aggravated assault victimization?

(1) male
(2) young (18-24)
(3) single

10

What are the major exceptions of this “age homogeneity” pattern of homicides and aggravated assaults?

(1) child homicides, in which the killer is typically a parent

(2) robbery homicides in which younger offenders many kill older victims in street muggings and robberies of convenes stores

11

What is victim precipitation?

situations in which the victim is the first person to resort to physical force that ultimately leads to their death

12

What percentage of victim precipitation is found in homicide and aggravated assaults?

20%-50% in homicide
10%-25% in aggravated assaults

13

What is the correlation between crime and occupation?

about two million people in the U.S. are victims of violent crime in the workplace every year

14

What are the 3 necessary elements for homicide and assault?

(1) an offender
(2) a victim
(3) a situational context for the crime

15

What are the various situational contexts for crime?

(1) physical settings (i.e. dangerous places, dangerous times)
(2) offense attributes (i.e. weapon use, co-offenders, alcohol/drug use)
(3) the nature of interpersonal dynamics between the parties

16

What are the situational elements in homicide and aggravated assaults?

(1) Dangerous Places
(2) Dangerous Times
(3) Offense Attributes
(4) Interpersonal Dynamics

17

What is the most dangerous location for homicides and aggravated assaults?

the physical space in and around the victim’s home

18

Why is this the ,physical space in and around the victim’s home, dangerous location for homicides and aggravated assaults?

(1) people spend more time at their home than any other location

(2) most violent offenders victimize family members and other known parties who live with or near them

(3) the closed physical structure of homes and norms of privacy often prevent outsiders from early intervention in domestic disputes before they become murders and aggravated assaults

19

What are the primary “hot spots” for physical assaults by strangers?

-bars
-other entertainment establishments
-parking lots
-subway/bus stops

20

Why are these locations (bars, other entertainment establishments, parking lots, and subway/bus stops) dangerous?

(1) one’s visibility and accessibility to strangers in these locations

(2) the greater likelihood of victims being alone

(3) the consumption of alcohol in bars and other entertainment establishments which may weaken inhibitions and impede judgments

21

What is the FBI’s “Crime Clock”?

a homicide occurs every 36 minutes, an aggravated assault occurs every 42 seconds

22

What is the “Crime Clock” trying to suggest, is it’s suggestion right or wrong?

suggests that acts of serious physical violence are uniform over time, which is wrong

23

What times are considered dangerous times?

(1) Nighttime Hours
(2) Weekends
(3) Summer Months
(4) (Some) Holidays

24

What times are considered nighttime hours?

6pm to 6am

25

Why are nighttime hours more dangerous than daytime hours?

(1) greater constraints/regulations imposed (during the day) by either work or school schedules

(2) the cover of darkness at night may encourage the likelihood of criminal behavior

26

What day(s) of the weekend are considered the most dangerous?

Friday and Saturday nights

27

Why is there more crime on weekends?

higher levels of leisure activity on weekends

28

Why are there higher rates of violence during the summer?

(1) the higher levels of public leisure activity in summer months
(2) the adverse effects of heat and crowding on human behavior

29

What are the adverse effects of heat and crowding on human behavior?

(1) increased frustration/irritability, (which increases aggression)

(2) in areas with moderate winters and extremely hot summers, this is less dramatic

30

There is no evidence of “______ ______”

"cabin fever"

31

What is “cabin fever”?

the belief that high rates of domestic violence in within months in extremely cold and snow-bound areas because the cold keep people from leaving their homes and domestic abuse occurs

32

Which holidays are especially dangerous?

Thanksgiving and Christmas

33

Why are there higher rates of crime during (some) holidays?

(1) family members reunite in one space
(2) wider consumption of alcohol

Decks in Criminal Justice 270- Intro to Criminology Class (47):