Chapter 20: Rape and Other Sex Offenses Part 4 Flashcards Preview

Criminal Justice 270- Intro to Criminology > Chapter 20: Rape and Other Sex Offenses Part 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 20: Rape and Other Sex Offenses Part 4 Deck (21):
1

Which groups have the highest risks of sexual assault victimization?

-women
-the young (18-25 yrs old)
-the unmarried (especially the separated and never married)
-racial/ethnic minorities
-those with household income less than $15,000

2

What are the characteristics of the offense (actual assault)?

(1) involved only one offender and victim
(2) occurred at night
(3) happened near or in the victim’s home
(4) involved the use of a weapon
(5) most victims said they knew their offender
(6) did something to protect themselves during the attack

3

Which type of sexual assaults/victims are more likely to be reported?

(1) victims of attempted sex offenses

(2) sexual assaults by strangers older victims (>50 years old)

4

What has, historically been used as primary punishment for sexual offenders?

long-term incarceration

5

What are the major problems with community notification laws that limit their ability to enhance public safety?

(1) most sex offenders are not recidivists or specialists

(2) most sex offenders victimize people that they known (especially other family members), but these laws are predicated on the false idea of the greater risks for “stranger danger”

(3) any registered sex offender can simply travel outside their immediate notification area to canvass/cruise for potential victims

6

What has been the clinical treatment of sexual offenders?

aversion therapy and cognitive behavioral approaches

7

_____-_____ __________, ____ _______ __________ and __________ __________, and ________ __________ have done little to increase public safety or reduce the likelihood of sex offenses in American society

long-term incarceration
sex offender registration
community notification
clinical treatment

8

What is the difference between general and specific deterrence?

general deterrence- the use of criminal punishments to deter other people

specific deterrence- this effect of punishment on deterring individuals from committing future crimes

9

There is no evidence that the threat of punishment will deter sex offenders because?

(1) the most important component for deterrence to work is the certainty of punishment
(2) the certainty of punishment for sex offending is extremely low

10

Why is the certainty of punishment for sex offending is extremely low?

(1) only a small fraction of all sex offenses are known to the police

(2) only about one half of the small number of known offenses are cleared by an arrest

11

Both ________ and ________ castration have been used as “treatment” for sex offenders.

physical
chemical

12

What is chemical castration?

chemical castration is induced through the taking of drugs that result in sexual impotence and reduces the production of testosterone

13

How is chemical castration flawed?

(1) sex offenders are given chemical castration on a voluntary basis

(2) this idea assumes that sex offending has sexual motivation, but most of the research literature suggests that sex crimes are primarily crimes of control/dominance/aggression

14

What are some crime prevention strategies?

(1) improving the visibility and surveillability of public places at night

(2) self-defense training

(3) the establishment of “buddy systems” to maintain contact with friends when engaged in risky public activities

15

What are some rape prevention activities?

(1) If you live alone, only use your first initial and your last name on your mailbox or make up a name

(2) Never open the door automatically after a knock

(3) Require people to give their names and ask for proper I.D. for service personnel

(4) Always look doors when you are in your car and when you leave it, even if only for a short time

(5) Be aware of what is around you

16

Why does the U.S. have high rape rates?

(1) Disrupted Sexual Morality/Promiscuity

(2) Sexual Rigidity/Uprightness

(3) displaced aggression

17

Does pornography increase or decrease sex offending?

“Regular” pornography is not linked to sex crimes

Violent pornography is linked to sex crimes

18

How are rape cases funneled?

2000 Actual Rapes:

-200 Known to Police (10%)
-100 Cleared by Arrest (50%)
-80 Prosecuted (80%)
-20 Convicted for Rape (25%)
-8 Prison Sentence (40%)

19

What are the goal of rape shield laws?

designed to primarily protect victims, but the victims backgrounds will still be brought up in court

20

What is the symbolic importance of rape shield laws?

shows that the criminal justice system is trying to address the problem

21

LIST and briefly describe 4 different reasons why these laws are unlikely to deter sex offenders and reduce the public’s risks of sexual victimization?

(1) If the sex offender communication laws are posted online then residents of a community may not see it, especially those who are not tech savvy.

(2) If the sex offender communication laws are mailed in, this could be too slow because very few people frequently check their mail.

(3) Once an offender is outed as a sexual predator they may feel like their community already views them as guilty so why not just commit the act anyway. There coincides with labeling theory of crime.

(4) A life outside of prison in which they constantly feel like a criminal and are looked at with disgust might be more stressful than a life in prison in which they are often isolated from other offenders in prison ( in a way it's a form of protection).

Decks in Criminal Justice 270- Intro to Criminology Class (47):