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Flashcards in Chapter 28 Deck (30)
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What is de facto?

by custom


What is de jure?

by law


Who was the first African American Supreme Court Justice?

Thurgood Marshall


What is CORE?

Congress of Racial Equality- an organization that played a pivotal role for African Americans in the Civil Rights Movement


What did the Brown v. Board of Education decide?

state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional


What is the Southern Manifesto?

a document written by the US congress in opposition to racial integration of public places.


What did Mohandas Gandhi do?

he led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world


What is the name of SCLC?

Southern Christian Leadership Conference


What store did the Greensboro sit-ins occur in?



Who is Julian Bond?

an American social activist and leader in the American civil rights movement, politician, professor, and writer.


Who is Ella Baker?

an African-American civil rights and human rights activist. She was a largely behind-the-scenes organizer whose career spanned over five decades.


What is the SNCC?

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee which was a large organization with many supporters in the North who helped raise funds to support its civil rights work in the South


Who was James Farmer?

the initiator and organizer of the 1961 Freedom Ride, which eventually led to the desegregation of inter-state transportation in the United States.


Who are the Freedom Riders?

civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and following years to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court


What was the Albany movement?

a desegregation coalition formed in Albany, Georgia, on November 17, 1961 by local activists, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)


Who was James Meredith?

an American civil rights movement figure, a writer, and a political adviser.


Who is "Bull" Conner?

the Commissioner of Public Safety for the city of Birmingham, Alabama, during the American Civil Rights Movement.


Who is Medgar Evers?

an African-American civil rights activist from Mississippi involved in efforts to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi.


What was considered the largest political rallies for human rights in United states history?

March on Washington


What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 do?

outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin


What was the Freedom Summer?

a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African-American voters as possible in Mississippi


What was the MFDP?

Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party , an American political party created in the state of Mississippi in 1964, during the civil rights movement.


Who was Malcolm X?

an African-American Muslim minister and a human rights activist


What was the Nation of Islam?

an organization to improve the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of African Americans in the United States and all of humanity


What was the Voting Rights Act of 1965

a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits discrimination in voting


What was the Mendez v. Westminster?

a 1946 federal court case that challenged racial segregation in Orange County, California schools


What is the INS?

Immigration and Naturalization service


What did the Immigration and Nationality Act?

abolished the national origins quota system that was American immigration policy since the 1920s, replacing it with a preference system that focused on immigrants' skills and family relationships with citizens or U.S. residents


What is the NCAI?

National Congress of American Indians


Who attempted to stop African American students from attending the University of Alabama?

Governor Wallace