Flashcards in Cognitive Explanations for Smoking - Addiction Deck (6):
How can self-medication explain initiation?
Individuals use smoking to treat psychological symptoms such as anxiety
- Can fulfil 3 major functions: mood regulation, performance management, distraction ( Gelkopp et al)
- Believe smoking helps these
How does Patton et al help to explain initiation?
Sample of 14-15 year olds about tobacco use:
- Depression + anxiety and peer smoking predicted initiation of experimental smoking
= depressive and anxiety symptoms are associated with higher risk for ignition though an increased susceptibility to peer smoking influences
How can self-medication explain maintenance?
- Smokers report stress relief for one of the main reasons for persisting to smoke
- BUT smokers report higher levels of stress than non-smokers - anxiety actually decreases once they stop
- Each cigarette has an immediate effect on stress symptoms because it relives the withdrawal symptoms of not smoking = chronic stress of smoking increases stress overall
How does Patton help to explain maintenance?
- Due to those with depression and anxiety being more susceptible this shows there is a belief that smoking reduces these symptoms = maintained due to this belief
- Smoking increases anxiety so individuals can't escape it
How can self-medication help to explain relapse?
- Due to the association of smoking with reducing stress when an individual as high levels of stress they may turn to smoking again
= causes them to get hooked again + stress levels to rise