When and where were the first horses domesticated?
Central Asia or Persia more than 3000 years BC
What is a bad habit that may affect the horses usefulness, dependability or health called?
How many joints are in the hind leg?
The horse has how many cervical vertebrae?
What is the external part of the ear called?
What part of the horse's skeletal system consists of the skull, spinal column, ribs and breastbone?
In what area of the horse would you find the pectoral muscles?
What is the name of the first cervical vertebrae?
What is the function of the short bones?
To absorb concussion.
What should be the widest part of the hindquarters?
What can be done to help bowed tendons?
Corrective Shoeing and Veterinary Intervention
A thickening of the plantar ligament of the hock is called what?
What is the longitudinal depression on the lavial surface of the upper incisor?
What determines all hereditary characteristics of a horse?
A gene that does not show up when paired with a dominant gene is said to be what?
Which is a dominant coat color, black or brown?
What does the G locus provide for?
What is the primary sex organ of the stallion?
What is a barren mare?
A mare that is not in foal
What hormone is responsible for the masculine appearance and behavior of the stallion?
When does puberty occur in the stallion?
About 1 year
What do the ovaries produce?
The membrane by which the fetus is attached to the uterus is what?
What is the function of the urethra?
To transport urine and sperm in the male
How many days is the gestation period of the horse?
Where do the sperm and egg unite?
Why is the colostrum important?
It provides the foal with the first, essential proteins and immunity to protect against infection.
What is the name for the practice that is used to identify mares in estrus?
What is the name for inflammation of the udder?
What is the name for a protrusion of intestine through the abdominal wall into the skin pouch that holds the testicles?
The short estrus period soon after foaling is called what?
What is meant by parturition?
Delivery of foals
What is the production of milk called?
Place the following terms in order: mastication, defecation, prehension, and deglutition.
Prehension, mastication, deglutition, defecation
Name the 3 pairs of salivary glands.
Parotid, submaxillary, sublingual
Name the 6 accessory organs of the digestive system.
Lips, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, liver, pancreas
About 65% of the digestive capacity of the horse is where?
Cecum & colon (lower gut)
Name the 2 hormones responsible for regulating the concentration of glucose in the blood.
Insulin & glucagon
What are the 5 regions of the large colon?
Left ventral colon, right ventral colon, right dorsal colon, left dorsal colon, traverse colon
Put the following in order of length, from shortest to longest: Pharynx, esophagus, small intestine, large intestine.
Pharynx, esophagus, large intestine, small intestine
Prolactin is produced in which gland & serves what function?
Anterior pituitary gland stimulates milk secretion
What are the 2 main functions of the cecum & large colon in the digestive process?
Cecum-absorption of water, Large colon-breaks down fiber by bacterial fermentation
Feeds low in fiber, high in TDN are called what?
Feeds high in fiber, low in TDN are called what?
A feed constituent that aids in the support of life is called what?
The less digestible form are carbohydrates found in feedstuffs.
Complex compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which mainly supply building material for the body is called what?
Compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and is the main source of energy to the body is called what?
That part of each nutrient which is digested, taken into the body, and utilized is referred to as what?
That part of the total or crude protein of a feed that can be utilized by the animal.
The entire feed allowed an animal during a 24-hour day, whether all is given at one time or different times.
A ration that contains all the digestible nutrients required to nourish an animal for 24 hours is called what?
A ration that furnishes just enough of each of the nutrients required to support an animal, which is doing no work and yielding no product, so that it will neither gain nor lose weight.
The sum of the digestible protein, digestible CHO, and digestible fat.
Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN)
That which is left in a feed sample after the water has been removed.
The minerals that are needed in very small amounts for the normal functioning of the body.
The part of the ration that is a concentrated form of one or more of the essential nutrients.
Chemical substances used in the treatment of infectious diseases.
What are the five required nutrients of a horse?
1. Water 2. Energy (Carbohydrates & Fats) 3. Protein 4. Vitamins 5. Minerals
Name three problems associated with overfeeding horses.
Obesity, laminitis, colic, contracted tendons
Should a horse be fed by weight or volume?
Name five trace or micro minerals.
Iodine, Manganese, iron, zinc, copper, fluorine, selenium, silicon, cobalt.
What part of grass is high in protein?
The leaves and the seeds
Together the two minerals sodium and chlorine make up a common dietary nutrient called what?
Where do horses get Vitamin D?
Sunlight and sun-cured hay
What two minerals are necessary for bone formation, muscular activity and blood clotting?
calcium and phosphorus
Are the essential amino acids of the horse synthesized by the body of the horse?
Which unsoundness causes difficulty in breathing due to lung damage?
What is the term for an animal's ability to resist or repel a disease producing organism?
Name a disease that can be contracted from organisms living in the soil?
What disease affects the spinal cord and nervous system & is caused by an organism whose life cycle is not yet completely understood?
Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM)
What term describes a preventative injection of bacteria or viruses, that have been modified or inactivated, to protect the horse against certain diseases?
Name a disease that if left untreated for a long period of time can cause the hoof wall to curl up & have rings around it.
Founder or laminitis
Name 2 factors that predispose foals to pneumonia.
Stress, such as from overcrowding, weaning & handling, Dust, Poor nutrition, Parasites, Heat & humidity & fluctuations in temperature
What does the bacteria, Streptococcus Equi cause?
During what time of year do most cases of Potomac Horse Fever occur?
Summer (July, August & early Sept)
Which disease affects many systems, primarily the skin, joints, nervous system & heart & is caused by the bacteria, borrelia burgdorferi?
How long can a horse be infected with EIA or swamp fever?
Rest of its life
Horses that are shown or mixed with other horses during the year, should be given at least what 5 vaccinations?
Eastern & Western encephalomyelitis, tetanus, influenza, rhinopneumonitis, Potomac Horse fever
The Coggins test is used in the detection of what disease of the horse?
Equine Infectious Anemia
What is the normal respiration of the horse?
8-15 breaths per minute
Describe spasmodic colic
muscular spasms of the intestinal tract.
Describe impaction colic
blockage of the intestinal tract.
Describe incarceration colic
loop of intestine becomes placed or trapped in an abnormal position.
Describe displacement colic
section of the intestine becomes twisted or caught in an abnormal position from an unknown cause.
Describe gas colic
caused by large quantities of gas and fluid produced by the bacteria in the digestive tract.