Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs Deck (25):
0

Identify drug class:
Pampakalma

Sedatives

1

Identify drug class:
Pampatulog

Hypnotics

2

Better safety profile:
Barbiturates or Benzodiazepines?

Benzodiazepines

3

MOA of Benzodiazepines

Increased FREQUENCY of Cl channel opening

FREnzodiazepine

4

MOA of Barbiturates

Increased DURATION of Cl channel opening

BarbiDURATes

5

CNS inhibitory NT

GABA

6

PNS inhibitory NT

Glycine

7

Excitatory NT

Glutamate (CNS)
Aspartate

8

Increases frequency of chloride channel opening
Intermediate-acting drug for seizure disorders, tranquilizer
SE: anterograde amnesia, unwanted daytime sedation
Additive CNS depression with alcohol

Drug?

Lorazepam
(Alprazolam, Clonazepam)

LAHAT NG -ZEPAM

9

Increases frequency of chloride channel opening
Short-acting drug for acute anxiety, anesthesia induction, preop sedation
SE: anterograde amnesia, unwanted daytime sedation, rebound insomnia/anxiety
Additive CNS depression with alcohol

Drug?

Midazolam

LAHAT NG -ZOLAM

10

How can benzodiazepine use affect sleep?

Decreases REM sleep

11

Increases frequency of chloride channel opening
Long-acting drug for seizure disorders, tranquilizer, alcohol withdrawal
SE: anterograde amnesia, unwanted daytime sedation
Additive CNS depression with alcohol

Drug?

Diazepam
(Flunitrazepam)

12

This long acting benzodiazepine is used as a date-rape drug

Flunitrazepam (Roofies/Rohypnol)

Other date rape drugs: alcohol, gamma-hydroxybutyrate

13

Benzodiazepine with the longest half life

Dhlordiazepoxide
(36-200h)

14

The toxic dose of benzodiazepines is how many times more than its therapeutic dose?

1000x

15

Antidote for Benzodiazepine Toxicity
SE: dizziness, nausea, withdrawal in those with dependence
Seizure and arrhythmia can occur when taken with TCAs

Drug, Class

Flumenazil, Benzodiazepine receptor antagonist

16

Role of activated charcoal im benzodiazepine toxicity

NONE. It's useless

17

Increases duration of chloride channel opening
Short and intermediate acting drug for insomnia, preop sedation
SE: higher likelihood of dependence than benzodiazepines, acute intermittent porphyria
Additive CNS depression with alcohol
Potent inducer of CYP450

Drug, Class

Pentobarbital, Barbiturate

LAHAT NG -BARBITAL

18

Ultrashort acting
Increases duration of Chloride channel opening
Drug for anesthesia induction, increased ICP
SE: higher likelihood of dependence than benzodiazepines
Contraindicated in Acute Intermittent Porphyria
Additive CNS effects with ethanol
Potent indicer of CYP450

Drug, Class

Thiopental, Barbiturate
TAYO agad THIOpental

19

Increases duration of chloride channel opening
Long acting drug for seizure disorders, status epilepticus, hyperbilirubinemias (Gilbert's Syndrome)
SE: higher likelihood of dependence than benzodiazepines, acute intermittent porphyria
Additive CNS depression with alcohol
Potent inducer of CYP450
Safe for pregnant*

Phenobarbital*, barbiturate
(Mephobarbital, Primidone*)

20

Enzyme deficient in Porphyria

HMB Synthase

21

Selectively binds to GABA-A
Drug for insomnia
SE: less likelihood of dependence than benzodiazepines
Effects reversed with Flumezanil
No anti-convulsant, anti-anxiety, and muscle relaxant effects

Zolpidem, Newer hypnotic
(Zaleplon, Ezopiclone)

Zolpidem, Zaleplon for Zleeeep

23

Partial agonist at 5HT1A and possibly D2 receptors
Drug for Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Good safety profile
Minimal CNS depressant effects
Minimal abuse liability
Minimal tolerance and withdrawal

Buspirone
BUSpirone for BUSy people (anxious)

24

Barbiturates

Thiopental
Pentobarbital
Phenobarbital

25

Benzodiazepines

Midazolam
Lorazepam
Clonazepam