Opioid Analgesics and Antagonists Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Opioid Analgesics and Antagonists > Flashcards

Flashcards in Opioid Analgesics and Antagonists Deck (21):
1

Opioid with the shortest half life

Remifentanil
(3-4 mins)

2

Opioid with the longest half life

Buprenorphine
(4-8 hours)

3

Receptor that inhibits respiration

Mu (Mabagal Huminga)

4

Receptor involved in development of tolerance

Delta (Tolerance)

5

Receptor involved in slowed GI transit

Kappa (Konstipation)

6

Analgesic of choice for MI due to reduction in preload
Full Opioid Agonist, nonselective
Acts on Mu receptors
SE: Pruritus
Exerts hemodynamic effects on pulmonary circulation

Morphine

7

Full Opioid Agonist
Acts on Mu receptors
Drug for chronic pain, breakthrough cancer pain
May be given transdermally or via lollipop

Fentanyl

8

Most potent opioid (18000x)

Ohmefentanyl

9

Full Opioid Agonist
Acts on Mu and Kappa receptors
Muscarinic blocking actions
Drug for moderate to sever pain, spasmodic pain (biliary, renal), preop sedation, antiemetic
Does NOT CAUSE MIOSIS or biliary spasm
Serotonin syndrome when used with SSRIs or MAOIs

Meperidine

10

Opioid of choice for pain relief in pancreatitis and biliary colic

Meperidine

11

Metabolite of Meperidine that decreases seizure threshold

Normeperidine

12

Full Opioid Agonist
Acts on Mu receptors
Drug for moderate to severe pain, Opioid dependence, opioid withdrawal
Used in methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) for dependence
Investigated as novel tx for Leukemia
Drug?

Methadone

13

Partial Opioid Agonist
Acts on Mu and Kappa receptors
Drug for Mod to Severe pain, Cancer pain, Neuropathic pain, Chronic pain
SE: Hypogonadism, hearing loss
Drug?

Hydrocodone

14

Partial Opioid Agonist
Decreases sensitivity of cough receptors through sigma receptor stimulation
Drug for cough
SE: Addiction liability
Serotonin syndrome when used with SSRIs or MAOI

Dextrometorphan

15

Weak Opioid Agonist
Acts on Mu receptors
Drug for mild to moderate pain, restless legs syndrome, opioid withdrawal
SE: Seizures, pulmo edema, fatal arrhythmia
WITHDRAWN due to fatal cardiotoxicity
Used in suicides

Propoxyphene

16

Mixed Opioid Agonist - Antagonist
Strong Kappa agonist
Weak Mu antagonist
Drug for Moderate to severe pain, opioid dependence, alcohol dependence, balanced anesthesia
SE: Sedation, dizziness
Resistant to naloxone reversal

Nalbuphine
(Buprenorphine, Butorphanol, Pentazocine)

17

Opioids that can reduce craving in alcohol dependence

Buprenorphine
Naloxone

18

Systemic opioid antagonist
Blocks, mu, kappa and delta
Drug for opioid overdose
Precipitates abstinence syndrome in pxs with opioid dependence

Naloxone

19

Dual acting opioid analgesic
Weak agonist at mu receptor, inhibits neuronal reuptake of serotonin and NE
Drug for mod pain, chronic pain syndromes, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia
SE: Seizures
Lowers seizure threshold
Contraindicated in pxs with epilepsy
Serotonin syndrome when used with SSRIs

Tramadol
(Tapentadol)

20

Triad of Opioid Overdose

PCR
Pupilary Constriction
Comatose State
Respiratory Depression

21

How do you confirm opioid overdose pharmacologically?

IV injection of Naloxone results in recovery