Flashcards in 11: Developmental Psychology Deck (48):
Studies in DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY are either ... or ...
Researcher's might look at .. .. in order to determine which TRAITS are most influenced by GENETIC FACTORS.
- IDENTICAL TWINS
Certain CHEMICALS or AGENTS (called ..) can cause HARM if ingested or contracted by the mother. The .. can filter out many potentially harm substances, but .. pass thru this barrier and can affect the fetus in profound ways.
One of the most common teratogens is ..
Children of alcoholic mothers who drink heavily during pregnancy are at high risk of .. .. ..
- FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME (FAS)
"when startled, a baby will fling his or her limbs out and then quickly retract them, making himself or herself as small as possible."
- MORO REFLEX
"when a baby's foot is stroked, he or she will spread the toes."
- BABINSKI REFLEX
Researchers know that babies can .. even BEFORE BIRTH.
Babies LOVE the TASTE of .. and responds to a higher concentration of '' in foods.
Our motor control develops as NEURONS in our brain connect with one another, and become ..
Biologist Konrad .. established that some infant animals (such as ..) become attached (...) on individuals or even objects they see during a critical period after birth.
In the 1950s, researcher Harry .. raised baby .. with two artificial wire frame figures made to resemble mother ''.
Mary .. researched the idea of attachment by placing HUMAN INFANTS into NOVEL SITUATIONS.
Types of attachments (3)
DEVELOPMENTAL psychologist Diana .. researched parent-child interactions and described (3) overall categories of parenting styles.
Besides NATURE vs. NURTURE, one of the major controversies in DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY is the argument about .. vs ..
"Do we develop continually, at a STEADY RATE from birth to death, or is our development discontinuous, happening in FITS AND STARTS with some periods of RAPID DEVELOPMENT and some of relatively LITTLE CHANGE?"
- CONTINUITY vs DISCONTINUITY
Freud said we develop through (4) ... stages
Erik ERICKSON was a .. .., a theorist who believed in the basics of Freud's theory but .. it to FIT his own ..
ERICKSON though that our personality was profoundly influence by our .. with .., so he created the .. ... ..
- EXPERIENCE WITH OTHERS
- PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE THEORY
"by the time we reach this age, we are starting to look critically at our life path. We want to make sure that we are creating the type of life that we want for ourselves and family."
- GENERATIVITY vs. STAGNATION
"In this stage, toddlers begin to exert their will over their own bodies for the first time."
- AUTONOMY vs. SHAME AND DOUBT
"Children in this stage want to understand the world."
- INITIATIVE vs. GUILT
"If those around us scold us for our curiosity, we might learn to feel guilty about asking questions and avoid doing so in the future."
- INITIATIVE vs. GUILT
"Preschool and kindergarten were mostly about play and entertainment. In the first grade, for the first time we are asked to produce work that is evaluated."
- INDUSTRY vs. INFERIORITY
Jean PIAGET's ..-.. theory is the most famous theory that tries to describe how children think about and .. the world.
Jean PIAGET was working for Alfred BINET, creator of the first .. .., when he started noticing interesting .. in the children he was interviewing.
- INTELLIGENCE TEST
PIAGET described how children viewed the world through .., COGNITIVE RULES we use to interpret the world. Normally, we INCORPORATE our EXPERIENCES into these existing '' in a process call ..
"Babies start experiencing and exploring the world strictly through their senses."
- SENSORIMOTOR STAGE (0-2)
"One of the major challenges of this stage is to develop OBJECT PERMANENCE"
- SENSORIMOTOR STAGE (2-7)
"We start speaking our first words and gradually learn to represent the world more completely through language."
- PREOPERATIONAL STAGE (2-7)
"Children in this stage are also EGOCENTRIC in their thinking, since they cannot loo at the world from anyone's perspective but their own."
- PREOPERATIONAL STAGE (2-7)
"Piaget categorized children in this stage when they demonstrated knowledge of the CONCEPTS OF CONSERVATION, the realization that properties of objects remain the same even when their shapes change."
- CONCRETE OPERATIONS (8-12)
"Children learn to think more logically about COMPLEX RELATIONSHIPS between different characteristics of objects."
- CONCRETE OPERATIONS
"This stage is where children learn abstract reasoning: e.g. testing a HYPOTHESIS"
- FORMAL OPERATIONS
"The ..-.. model is a more continuous is a more continuous alternative to Piaget's stage theory."
"The youngest children in Kohlberg's sample focus on making the decision most likely to avoid punishment."
"Children in this level might say that Heinz should not steal the drug because he might get caught and put into prison."
Lawrence .. 's .. theory studied a completely different aspect of human development: ..
Stage theories (5)
- FREUD'S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
- ERICKSON'S PYSCHOSOCIAL STAGES
- PIAGET's COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENT THEORY
- KOHLBERG'S STAGE THEORY
"Children in this stage make a moral choice based on how others will view them."
"Children in this stage might say that Heinz should steal the drug because then he could save his wife and people would think of him as a hero."
"Kohlberg described how SELF-DEFINED ETHICAL PRINCIPLES might be involved in reasoning in this stage."
"Person's in this stage might say that Heinz should steal the drug because his wife's right to life outweighs the store owner's right to personal property."
Different psychological perspectives provide different theories that try to explain how gender roles develop (3)
- BIOPSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY
- PYSCHODYNAMIC THEORY
- SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY
".. psychologists concentrate on the NATURE/NURTURE combinations that produces our gender role."
"Freud viewed gender development as a competition. Young boys, unconsciously, compete with their fathers for their mothers' attention. Girls, similarly, compete with mothers for their father's love."