Flashcards in Study Guide: CHP 12 -- Personality Deck (30)
FREUD's background and experience that influenced him? (3)
- born during the viennese era
- lived in vienna; wealthy viennese women
- our desire for LIFE ENERGY (jung); part of EROS: life energy instinct
- the PURSUIT of PLEASURE, or the pleasure center (freud: sexual satisfaction) jung; no, it's a general life force, includes the natural human desire to be creative;
- CONSCIOUS, ETHICS, MORALITY--eventually children have internalized what can and cannot be done.
--> the FEELING OF GUILT after you do sth bad.
note: ID and SUPEREGO are constantly demanding things of us.
Carl JUNG differences with FREUD. (3)
- doesn't believe in ORAL, ANAL, PHALLIC
- really believed in INTROVERTED/EXTROVERTED.
(-->personality of INTROVERTED person is shaped by SELF-REFLECTION: they are their own best council-->extrovert: more of a SOCIAL process)
- we have memories inherited from our ancestors
- idea, behavior, or style that SPREADS from PERSON to PERSON within a culture
- (not much evidence to support)
1. Describe the FIVE FACTOR MODEL of PERSONALITY (5)
- extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness
- each FACTOR represents a RANGE b.w TWO EXTREMES
- MCRAE and colleagues' research show: UNIVERSAL
- BIOLOGICAL ORIGINS of these personality traits?
- represent BROAD AREAS of PERSONALITY: FACTOR ANALYSIS --> sociable and talkative
2. Explain (according to FREUD)
a) the STRUCTURE of personality
b) LEVELS of AWARENESS
c) DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES in Freudian theory
a) ID (pleasure principle), EGO (reality principle; wants to maximize gratification but needs to find socially suitable way to do that), SUPEREGO (moral component)
b) levels of awareness: CONSCIOUS; PRECONSCIOUS (material just below the surface of awareness that can be easily retrieved); UNCONSCIOUS. Compared to an ICEBERG, where the UNCONSCIOUS is much larger than the conscious (the part below the iceberg); the ego, and superego operate at ALL THREE levels; the id is entirely unconscious
c) refer to BARRONS
3. Explain how ANXIETY can lead to use of various DEFENSE MECHANISMS.
- because ppl want to RID themselves of ANXIETY, they try to use DEFENSE MECHANISMS (unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions)
4. How does JUNG's view of the UNCONSCIOUS differ from FREUD's? (3)
- JUNG believed that FREUD's view of unconscious was: LIMITED and OVERLY NEGATIVE
- RESERVOIR of REPRESSED thoughts and EMOTIONS (freud) vs. also a SOURCE OF CREATIVITY (jung)
- Freud: personal unconscious made from anxiety caused from CLASH of REPRESSED WISHES and FEARS; Jung: COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS made up of ARCHETYPES and repeated experiences of PPL
- Jung: LIBIDO(our drives, part of id) isn't just SEXUAL DESIRE! It is also LIFE FORCE, (definitions are broader, not just wrapped up in sex and aggression)
5. Explain ADLER's striving for SUPERIORITY. (3)
- "UNIVERSAL SUBCONSCIOUS DRIVE to adapt, improve oneself, and master life's challenges
- motivated by INFERIORITY FEELINGS (kids feel weak and helpless in comparison w/ competent older children and adults...); some ppl might develop an INFERIORITY COMPLEX(try to achieve status, gain power over others, gain trappings of success e.g. clothes, cars...worry more about APPEARANCES than REALITY
- overcoming these feelings of inferiority is called COMPENSATION
6. Evaluate the CONTRIBUTIONS of PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY of PERSONALITY. (4)
- UNCONSCIOUS FORCES can influence behavior
- INTERNAL CONFLICTS plays a role in generating ANXIETY
- CHILD experiences can have a PROFOUND impact on ADULT personality
- ppl use DEFENSE MECHANISMs to reduce experience of unpleasant feelings
7. Explain SKINNER's view of PERSONALITY as a collection of response tendencies shaped by operant conditioning. (4)
- note: showed little interest in what was going on "INSIDE" of ppl; was only interested in OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR.
- argued for a strong brand of DETERMINISM (behavior is fully determined by ENVIRONMENT)
- why do ppl show CONSISTENT pattern of behaviors? we all have STABLE RESPONSE TENDENCIES, as a result of new experience.
--> an individuals personality is "a COLLECTION of RESPONSE TENDENCIES that are tied to various STIMULUS SITUATION."
8. Explain BANDURA's view of RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM and SELF-EFFICACY in shaping PERSONALITY. (3)
- a brand of behaviorism: social learning theory; personality is largely shaped by environment, but people are NOT PASSIVE participants (they are proactive, self-reflecting...)
- RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM: ENVIRONMENT determines BEHAVIOR, but behavior also determines environment (ppl they hang around); PERSONAL FACTORS (beliefs and expectancies) also influence behavior and environment
- SELF-EFFICACY: influences which challenges ppl tackle, and how well they perform (self efficacy can be high or low); depends on situations tho --> you can feel confident about handling difficult social situations, but doubtful of ability to handle academic challenges.
9. Describe ROGERS' PERSON-CENTERED theory of PERSONALITY. How does it fulfill HUMANISTIC principles? (4)
- emphasizes SELF-REALIZATION, uses exercises intended to foster personal growth.
- personality is composed of your SELF-CONCEPT (which is subjective);
- note: sometimes your self-concept and reality might now fit --> INCONGRUENCE --> higher anxiety; defense mechanism: deny it, make up excuses; reality: you're selfish. you: no I'm nice! other people don't understand me!
- development of self-concept: CHILDHOOD, whether your parents were unconditional or not in their love of you. (if not, you might be led to be to believe that ppl's affection for you is conditional, and that you have to block out your bad traits)
10. Describe MASLOW's hierarchy of NEEDS.
- see BARRONs.
11. What are STRENGTHS of HUMANISTIC perspectives on PERSONALITY? (3)
- person's SUBJECTIVE VIEWS(beliefs, expectations...) are more important than objective reality.
- the SELF-CONCEPT is an important construct in personality
- the humanists' OPTIMISTIC, GROWTH and HEALTH-ORIENTED approach laid the foundation for the POSITIVE psychology movement
12. What evidence supports EYSENCK's conclusion that PERSONALITY is largely GENETICALLY determined? (3)
- IDENTICAL and FRATERNAL TWINS studies(also studies conducted reared apart); high correlations
- research has shown that SHARED FAMILY ENVIRONMENT appears to have a remarkably little impact on personality (HMM)
- GENETIC MAPPING: allow to look for associations b/w specific GENES and aspects of behavior; although most of the time, its hundreds of genes that influence one personality trait.
13. Summarize the EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE on personality. (3)
- NATURAL SELECTIONS has favored certain personality traits that contribute to reproductive fitness.
- the BIG 5 traits have significant adaptive implications..this traits are products of evolution
- groups interactions: who will make a good member of my group? who can I rely on?
14. What EVIDENCE supports the idea of PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES b/w INDEPENDENT and INTERDEPENDENT cultures?
--> studies that compared American and Asian CONCEPTS of SELF.
- interdependent(eastern): emphasizes the fundamental connectedness; teach children that they can rely on friends and family; be modest; view yourself as part of a larger social matrix
- independent (western): excel in competitive endeavors and to strive to stick out from the crowd. "you have to stand up for yourself!"
6. Evaluate the LIMITATIONS of PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY of PERSONALITY. (4)
- POOR TESTABILITY (too vague..how can you disprove that the id doesn't exist when it is in the unconscious?)
- UNREPRESENTATIVE SAMPLES (freud's observations based on sexually repressed upper class viennese women)
- INADEQUATE EVIDENCE (rely too heavily on clinical case studies; freud often distorted his patient's theories to mesh with his theory)
- SEXISM (penish envy?? women have weaker superegos??...)
- point in therapy where the THERAPIST sort of becomes the foil for the patient.
8. How does MISCHEL modify BANDURA's theory? (2)
- people make responses that that they THINK will lead to REINFORCEMENT in a situation at hand.
e.g. if you believe your hard work in your job will pay off, you will work hard; but if you think your effort will be ignored, you will be lazy and irresponsible.
--> people exhibit FAR LESS CONSISTENCY ACROSS SITUATIONS than had been widely assumed.
11. What are the LIMITATIONS of HUMANISTIC perspectives on PERSONALITY? (3)
- POOR TESTABILITY: generating hypotheses that are difficult to put to a scientific test
- UNREALISTIC VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE: e.g. maslow's self-actualizing ppl sound nearly perfect (in truth, maslow couldn't find those ppl, had to look at historical figures)
- INADEQUATE EVIDENCE: not particularly research oriented..
12. What evidence supports EYSENCK's conclusion that personality is largely GENETICALLY DETERMINED?
- identical siblings raised apart had greater similarity than fraternal twins raised together, concluded that there is genetic basis for personality.
13. Summarize the EVOLUTIONARY perspective on PERSONALITY.
- personality traits evolved in order to give ppl an advantage; have these traits, recognize them in other; formed coalitions more easily, aid survival chances.
14. What EVIDENCE supports the idea of personality DIFFERENCES b/w INDEPENDENT and INTERDEPENDENT cultures (2)
- study comparing 51 cultures found that there were cross-cultural variabilities (e.g. brazilians scored higher in neuroticism, australians in extroversion, germans in openness to new experience..etc..)
- (most influential work is by...)markus and kitayama compared American and Asian CONCEPTIONS OF SELF.
BANDURA PERSONALITY THEORY?
(vs. behaviorist theory)
- people can learn thru observation (vs. just direct reinforcement)
- intrinsic motivation (vs. simply external rewards)
- learning does not necessarily lead to change in behavior
CATTELL PERSONALITY THEORY?
- 16 PERSONALITY FACTORS
ALLPORT PERSONALITY THEORY?
- TRAIT THEORY: CARDINAL TRAITS, CENTRAL TRAITS, SECONDARY TRAITS