Flashcards in Study Guide: Social Psychology Deck (30):
How does: ... contribute to person perception(first impressions)?
- PHYSICAL APPEARANCE
- ILLUSORY CORRELATION
- IN GROUP/OUT GROUP IDENTITY
- physical appearance: we tend to believe ppl who are more physically attractive. (+matching hypothesis: more likely to be attracted to ppl with same physical attractiveness)
- stereotypes: make assumptions about character of person
- illusory correlation: people tend to see what they expect to see and ignore what doesn't conform with stereotypes e.g. librarian/waitress experiment drinking beer, listening to classical music.
- in group/out group identity: suspicious of out-group (attribute behavior to internal factors) note: strong evolutionary basis.
In explaining the causes of behavior, how does: ... help/hinder our attributions?
- INTERNAL/EXTERNAL ATTRIBUTION
- ACTOR-OBSERVER BIAS
- DEFENSIVE ATTRIBUTION
- internal attribution: personal traits
- external attribution: environment
- actor-observer bias: for other ppl, we tend to attribute behavior to internal causes --> fundamental attribution level; for our own behavior, we tend to attribute to external causes.
- defensive attribution: tendency to blame victims for their misfortune - *hindsight bias*
How does: ... influence attraction?
- MATCHING HYPOTHESES
- MERE EXPOSURE
- matching hypotheses: likely to select ppl who are same lvl of attractiveness
- similarity: tend to like ppl who are similar to us (intelligence, values, age, race...); phenomenon: attitude alignment - partners gradually modify behaviors to be more similar
- mere exposure: more exposed more we like
Why aren't ATTITUDES always a good predictor of behavior? (2)
- variations in attitude STRENGTH, ACCESSIBILITY (how often does it come to mind?), AMBIVALENCE (conflicting evaluations)
- SITUATIONAL CONSTRAINTS – subjective perception of how ppl expect you to behavior is a strong determinant
Explain factors that influence the effectiveness of PERSUASION. (3)
- HIGH CREDIBILITY: expertise (e.g. pHD..) ; trustworthiness (does the source have sth to gain?)
- LIKEABILIY: physical attractiveness, similarity with receiver
>MESSAGE FACTORS: two-sided argument appeals to fear; frequent repetition of the message-->*mere exposure effect*
>RECEIVER FACTORS: forewarning about persuasive effort (e.g. you KNO ppl salesppl will try to sell u stuff at the store); how strong you feel about your attitudes; if you have already resisted change to your attitudes in the past.
How does LEARNING contribute to attitude formation and change? (3)
- learning: esp. thru
EVALUATIVE CONDITIONING (transfer emotion associated w/ one stimulus to new conditioned stimulus)
OPERANT CONDITIONING (how ppl respond to your views)
OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING (your parents attitudes often transfer to you)
Describe common tactics used to GAIN COMPLIANCE...
- presence of AUTHORITY FIGURE
- other ppl who express disapproval or refuse to comply
ETHICAL problems with Milgram's experiment?
- participants exposed to EXTENSIVE DECEPTION--> reduce their trust in ppl
- SEVERE stress which could leave emotional scars
- confront the disturbing fact that they caved in to an experimenter's command and inflicted harm on an innocent victim
How does: ... influence group decision making?
- RISKY SHIFT
- GROUP POLARIZATION
- GROUP THINK
- GROUP COHESIVENESS
- risky shift: result of group polarization, decision becomes more risky
- group polarization: tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme (conservative/risky) than an individual would
- group think: group stresses coherence at expense of critical thinking
- group cohesiveness: the strength of the relationship linking group members can increase group think
What factors contribute to the persistence of prejudice and discrimination?
- PARENTAL INFLUENCE
- COMPETITION B/W GROUPS
- IN-GROUPS vs. OUT-GROUPS; "us vs. them"
- THREATS to SOCIAL IDENTITY (groups you belong to) can undermine self-esteem
*Identify 4 ways that the presence of others can influence our performance.
- social interference
- social motivation
- social loafing
- social striving: contributing 150%
*How does: ... influence our likelihood of conforming to norms?
- AMBIGUOUS SITUATIONS
- MAJORITY BEHAVIOR
- MINORITY BEHAVIOR
- ambiguous situation: less likely to conform
- majority behavior: more likely to conform
- minority behavior: if the minority stick together --> persistence, loyalty...
- gender: women are more likely to conform (however, that difference is diminishing)
*What factors influence OBEDIENCE? (5)
- PEER PRESSURE
- MORAL VALUES
- SITUATIONAL FACTORS
- AUTHORITY FIGURE
- POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES
BIOLOGICAL CAUSES of aggressive behavior? (6)
- CERTAIN BRAIN AREAS (stimulated on monkey causes aggression)
- GENETICS --> proof: selective breeding
- BLOOD CHEMISTRY-low blood sugar levels
- ALCOHOL: lowers self-awareness, and prediction of outcomes
*How does: ... explain aggression?
- GENERALIZED AROUSAL
- ADVERSELY STIMULATED AGGRESSION
- ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
- frustrated get aggresive
- generalized arousal: if you're already aroused, its more likely that you will get aggressive
-adv. stim. aggr.: a bunch of bad things have already happened to you today and you're in a bad mood bcos of that
- env. fac.: some1 provoked you; its culturally ok to be aggresive
*How does: ... illustrate the social tension of choosing b.w cooperation and competition?
- PRISONER'S DILEMMA
- RESOURCE DILEMMA
- prisoner's dilemma? confess and go free; don't confess and get 1 year? both confess and get 5 years. other confesses and you get 10 years.
- resource dilemma: how much should i take from/give to common pot
*Why is there often a ladder of escalation of conflict?
- growing investment on each person's point of view
- begin to see opponent as hostile and selfish
- bad communication
- suspicious of the other person's intention
*How does: ... explain ALTRUISTIC BEHAVIOR?
- EVOLUTIONARY THEORY
- AROUSAL: COST-REWARD THEORY
- protect our genes; genes of our species.
- is the cost/reward worth it?
- we are wired to love either; oxytocin
What is WEINER's model?
- internal/external + stable/unstable attribution model
- males and females of approx. equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners.
- tendency to blame ppl for their misfortune - hindsight bias
How do EVOLUTIONARY FACTORS influence attraction? (3)
--> reason why: good physical appearance may be indicator of sound health, good genes, high fertility, which can contribute to reproductive potential.
- FACIAL SYMMETRY: key element to attractiveness (bcos environmental insults/developmental abnormalities are associated w/ assymetries)
- ♀WAIST-TO-HIP ratio
- note: MENSTRUAL CYCLES also play --> approaching ovulation: favor manly men
GOOD PHYSICAL APPEARANCE may be indicator of... (3)
- SOUND HEALTH
- GOOD GENES
- HIGH FERTILITY
What is the average correlation b/w ATTITUDE and BEHAVIOR?
- .41 correlation
ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD THEORY?
- suggests that there are two basic routes to persuasion: central route (logical persuasion) and peripheral route (emotional persuasion). studies suggest that central route lead to more enduring attitude change.
- transferring emotion associated w/ one stimulus to new conditioned stimulus (why you pair attractive models/celebrities/popular events w/ objects you are trying to sell)
What is Leon FESTINGER's theory?
- DISSONANCE THEORY
How does COGNITIVE DISSONANCE contribute to attitude formation and change?
- cognitive dissonance: if we experience dissonance (psychological discomfort), we tend to change our attitudes --> cite FESTINGER's study; also note EFFORT JUSTIFICATION (ppl who go thru a lot of effort only to receive a mediocre reward rate the experience more positively.
Zimbardo's explanation for what happened in the STANFORD PRISON EXPERIMENT? (2)
- enormous influence of SOCIAL ROLES --> what a prison guard acted like; participants were gradually consumed by their roles
- SITUATIONAL FACTORS - demonstrated the power of situational pressures to lead normal, decent ppl to behave in sinister, repugnant ways.