Flashcards in BARRON7: Cognition Part 2 Deck (26):
"Studies show that NEURONS can .. CONNECTIONS b/w each other. Thru repeated FIRINGS, the connections strengthen and the RECEIVING NEURON becomes more .. to MESSAGES from the sending neurons. This STRENGTHENED CONNECTION might be related to the CONNECTIONS we make in our .. .. memory."
--> PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING
- LONG TERM
ELEMENTS of LANGUAGE (3)
"smallest unit of sound used in a language"
English speakers use approximately .. PHONEMES
"smallest unit of MEANINGFUL sound" e.g. a, but, "an-", "pre-"...
So language consists of .. put together to become .., which make up words. These words are then spoken or written in a PARTICULAR ORDER, called ..
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION STAGES (2)
- HOLOPHRASTIC/ONE WORD STAGE
- TELEGRAPHIC/TWO-WORD STAGE
"Mark hitted my head to so I throwed the truck at him" misapplication of grammar rules.
- theorized that humans are born with a LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE, the ability to learn a language rapidly as children
"he theorized that a CRITICAL PERIOD for learning language may exist."
- NOAM CHOMSKY
- theorized that the language we use might control, and in some ways limit, our thinking --> LINGUISTIC RELATIVITY HYPOTHESIS
"what we think is the most TYPICAL EXAMPLE of a particular CONCEPT"
DESCRIBING THOUGHT (2)
- CONCEPTS BASED OFF OF PROTOTYPES
- IMAGES --> mental pictures (sound, smell, image...)
AN ALGORITHM is a RULE that .. the right SOLUTION by using a .. or other foolproof method.
"For example, if you are trying to guess a password, you might begin by guessing actual five-letter WORDS rather than random combinations of letters. The password might be a meaningless combination of letters, but you know that passwords are MOST OFTEN actual words. This .. limits the possible combinations dramatically."
"Judging a situation based on EXAMPLES of SIMILAR SITUATIONS that come to mind initially. E.G. a person may judge his or her neighborhood to be more dangerous than others in the city simply because that person is more familiar with violence in his or her neighborhood than in other neighborhoods"
- AVAILABILITY HEURISTIC
"Judging a situation based on how SIMILAR the aspect are to PROTOTYPES the person holds in his or her mind. e.g. a person might judge a young person more likely to commit suicide because of the prototype of the depressed adolescent when, in fact, suicide rates are not higher in younger populations."
- REPRESENTATIVENESS HEURISTIC
"occurs when we make ILLOGICAL CONCLUSIONS in order to confirm our PREEXISTING BELIEFS."
- BELIEF BIAS
"our tendency to MAINTAIN a belief even after the EVIDENCE we used to form the belief is CONTRADICTED."
- BELIEF PERSEVERANCE
IMPEDIMENTS TO PROBLEM SOLVING (3)
- TENDENCY TO FALL INTO ESTABLISHED THOUGHT PATTERS --> RIGIDITY/MENTAL SET
- CONFIRMATION BIAS
"inability to see a new use for an object"
- FUNCTIONAL FIXEDNESS
"looking for EVIDENCE that confirms our BELIEFS and IGNORE evidence that contradicts what we think is true."
- CONFIRMATION BIAS
"the way a problem is presented e.g. this problem is easy vs. half my students can't solve this problem."
- documented details of the AHA EXPERIENCE by observing a group of CHIMPANZEES as they generated original solutions to retrieve bananas the were out of reach.
"thinking that points towards ONE SOLUTION."
- CONVERGENT THINKING