Flashcards in Study Guide: CHP 7 -- Memory Deck (51):
4. c) STM is often used interchangeably with .. .., but the two should be utilized separately. Working memory refers to the .. that are used to .. store, organize and .. information. STM, on the other hand, refers only to the temporary storage of information in memory.
- WORKING MEMORY
1. SELECTIVE ATTENTION is .. to everyday FUNCTIONING. If your ATTENTION were distributed .. among all .. INPUTS, life would be utter CHAOS. You need to screen out most of the potential.. around you in order to READ a BOOK, CONVERSE with a FRIEND, or even carry on a COHERENT train of ..
1. The ADDITIONAL .. created by .. usually help people REMEMBER INFORMATION.
.. or the creation of VISUAL IMAGES to .. words, can be used to ENRICH ..
1.Making material .. meaningful can also enrich .. People's .. of information tends to be .. in favor of material that is .. to them
1. FACTORS that influence MEMORY POSITIVELY (4)
- VISUAL IMAGERY
4. b) REHEARSAL is the process of .. verbalizing or .. about the information. CHUNKING is STORING a group of .. .. into a .. .. REHEARSAL influences how .. you retain information; CHUNKING influences how .. information you can retain.
- FAMILIAR STIMULI
- SINGLE UNIT
- HOW LONG
- HOW MUCH
2. According to some theorists, .. DIFFERENCES in how PEOPLE attend to INFORMATION are important factors influencing how .. they remember. Craik and Lockhart proposed the incoming information can be processed at .. levels. They maintained that in dealing with .. information, people engage in three progressively deeper levels of processing: .. , .. , and .. ..
- STRUCTURAL, PHONEMIC, SEMANTIC
3. ATKINSON and SHIFFRIN proposed that MEMORY MADE is made up of THREE .. ..: .. MEMORY can hold a LARGE of amount of information just long enough (a fraction of a ..) for a .. .. of it to be selected for LONGER storage. ... has a LIMITED CAPACITY, and unless aided by .., its STORAGE DURATION is BRIEF. LTM can store an apparently unlimited amount of information for indeterminate periods.
- INFORMATION STORE
- SMALL PORTION
4) a) DECAY THEORY attributes FORGETTING to the .. of MEMORY STORAGE; it proposes that MEMORY TRACES FADE because of ..; the implicit assumption is that decay occurs in the .. .. responsible for memories; INTERFERENCE THEORY proposes that people forget because .. from other material. INTERFERENCE depends on the .. of the original material and the intervening material. DECAY THEORY proposes that memories are eventually .. and cannot be .. ; INTERFERENCE THEORY implies that the memory is still there, however, it cannot be retrieved because of .. from similar new/old information.
- PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS
6) a) CLUSTERING shows the TENDENCY to remember KNOWLEDGE in .. Thus, when applicable, factual information is routinely .. into .. .. Also, when possible, factual information may be organized into .. ..
- CONCEPTUAL HIERARCHY (e.g. minerals --> metals --> gold)
6) c) A SCHEMA is an .. .. of knowledge about a particular .. or .. abstracted from .. .. with the object or event. PEOPLE are more likely to .. things that are .. with their SCHEMAS than things that are NOT. HOWEVER, the INVERSE is also true. Information that really .. with a schema may attract .. .. and deeper ... e.g. slot machine in professor's office
- ORGANIZED CLUSTER
- EVENT OR OBJECT
- PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE
- EXTRA ATTENTION
6) b)"a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items" e.g. -->
- CONCEPTUAL HIERARCHY
--> mineral --> metal --> rare --> gold
6) d) A SEMANTIC NETWORK consists of .. representing .. , joined together by .. that link related concepts.
e.g. apples truck --> vehicle
7) a) "trying to recall an EVENT by putting yourself back in the ''" e.g.
- CONTEXT CUE
e.g. go upstairs, forget what you came to get.
7) b) "occurs when participants recall of an event they witness is altered by introducing .. .. information" research on this effect has shown that .. distortions show up .. in eyewitness testimony. e.g.
--> MISINFORMATION EFFECT
e.g. --> how fast were the cars when they SMASHED against each other?
7) c) "refers to the process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources (one's perceptions of actual events) or internal sources (one's thoughts and imaginations" e.g.
- REALITY MONITORING
e.g. did i pack the umbrella or did i only think of packing it?
8. EBBINGHAUS concluded that FORGETTING occurs .. .. after learning something. His experiment with .. syllables revealed that people tended to forget something simply .. min after they learned it.
- VERY RAPIDLY
9. RECALL requires subjects to .. information on their own w/out any ..; RECOGNITION requests subjects to select .. .. information from an array of .. e.g.
- PREVIOUSLY LEARNED
e.g. ESSAY vs MULTIPLE CHOICE
10. a) INEFFECTIVE ENCODING makes you think that you might have forgotten something, when, reality some information might not have been .. into your head into the first place. Since you can't really forget sth you never learned, this phenomenon is sometimes called .. '' is usually attributed to .. .. ..
- LACK OF ATTENTION
10. b) "occurs when NEW INFORMATION impairs the retention of PREVIOUSLY LEARNED INFORMATION"
- RETROACTIVE LEARNING
--> TEACHER FORGETS NAMES OF OLD STUDENTS
10. b) "occurs when PREVIOUSLY learned INFORMATION interferes with the retention of NEW INFORMATION"
- PROACTIVE LEARNING
10. c) ENCODING SPECIFICITY PRINCIPLE?
- the more specific the cue, the more likely you are to remember it?--"the value of a RETRIEVAL CUE depends on how well it corresponds to the MEMORY CODE" -->
10. d) "refers to keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the .." can also be called .. ..
- MOTIVATED FORGETTING
11. a) one line of research suggests that memory formation results in CHANGES in .. .. at specific SITES (--> enhance the .. and .. of NEUROTRANSMITTERS at these SYNAPSES) Researcher Kandel believes that .. changes in synaptic transmission may be the neural .. .. of more .. memories as well.
- SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION
- BUILDING BLOCKS
11. b) specific memories may depend on .. .. circuits in the brain. In other words, memories may create .., .. pathways in the brain along which signals flow.
- LOCALIZED NEURAL
- UNIQUE, REUSABLE
11. c) LONG TERM POTENTIATION?
Researchers produce LTP artificially by sending a burst of .. .FREQUENCY .. stimulation. LTP supports the idea that MEMORY TRACES consist of specific .. ..
-->"long lasting INCREASE in the NEURAL EXCITABILITY at SYNAPSES along a specific neural pathway" --> MYELINIZATION
- HIGH FREQUENCY
- NEURAL CIRCUITS
11. d) Recent RESEARCH suggests that the process of NEUROGENESIS may contribute to the .. of .. .. that underlie MEMORY; Animal studies show that manipulations that SUPPRESS neurogenesis lead to .. .. on many types of LEARNING tasks and that conditions that INCREASE neurogenesis are associated with .. .. on many tasks.
- NEURAL CIRCUITS
- MEMORY IMPAIRMENTS
- ENHANCED LEARNING
12. The study of anterograde amnesia has proven to be an esp. rich source of information about the .. and .. From one well known case, a man named .. had surgery to relieve debilitating .. .. The surgery greatly reduced his seizures however the it also inadvertently wiped out his ability to form new .. .. ..
- LONG TERM MEMORIES
12. "involves the loss of memories for events that occurred PRIOR to the onset of amnesia."
- RETROGRADE AMNESIA
12. "involves the loss of memories for events that occur AFTER the ONSET of amnesia"
- ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA
12. H.M's memory losses were originally attributed to the removal of his ..; Scientist now believe that the entire .. .. and adjacent areas in the cortex are .. for many types of LTM. Many scientist now refer to this broader memory complex as the .. .. .. memory system, which they think plays a major role in the .. of memory
- HIPPOCAMPAL REGION
- MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE
13. a) "handles FACTUAL information; contains recollections of WORDS, DEFINITIONS, NAMES, DATES, FACES, EVENTS,CONCEPTS, AND IDEAS." --> knowing the rules of tennis
- DECLARATIVE MEMORY
13. a) "houses MEMORIES for ACTIONS, SKILLS, CONDITIONED RESPONSES, AND EMOTIONAL RESPONSES. e.g. riding a bike, typing, tying a shoe." --> knowing how to play tennis
- PROCEDURAL MEMORY
13. b) "made up of chronological, or temporarily dated recollections of personal experiences. A record of things you have done, or seen." --> being in the ninth grade play, visiting the Grand Canyon, going to the Norah Jones concert...
13. b) "contains general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned." --> Christmas is December 25th, dogs have four legs, etc...
- SEMANTIC MEMORY SYSTEM
13. c) "involves remembering to perform actions in the future." --> remember to grab your umbrella, to walk the dog, to call someone, and to grab tickets to the big game.
- PROSPECTIVE MEMORY
13. c) "involves remembering events from the past or previously learned information." --> who won the Super Bowl last year, reminiscing about high school days, what your professor said in the lecture last week.
- RETROSPECTIVE MEMORY
13. d) "When you are trying to intentionally remember something (like a formula for your statistics class or a list of dates for your history class), this information is stored in your .. .. .
- EXPLICIT MEMORY
13. d) Things that we don't purposely try to remember are stored in .. ... This kind of memory is both .. and .. This type of memory is also known as .. memory, since you are not able to consciously bring it into awareness. .. memories, such as how to perform a specific task like swinging a baseball bat or making toast, are one type of IMPLICIT memory since you don't have to consciously recall how to perform these tasks.
- IMPLICIT MEMORY
13. e) you are more likely to recall STATE DEPENDENT memory depending on the .. .. you are in ; CONTEXT DEPENDENT memory is more easily recalled depending on your ..
- EMOTIONAL STATE
14. "the tendency to MOLD one's INTERPRETATION of the PAST to fit how EVENTS ACTUALLY turned out."
- HINDSIGHT BIAS
14. The tendency to exhibit the HINDSIGHT BIAS is .., .., and surprisingly strong. With regard to .., their recollections may often be .. by knowing that a particular PERSON has been ARRESTED and ACCUSED of the crime in question.
14. Another FLAW in thinking contributes to .. in EYEWITNESS accounts is people's tendency to be .. about the .. of their memory. When tested for their memory of information, people tend to .. their accuracy; Evidence indicates that that only a .. correlation is found between eyewitness .. and eyewitness ...
15. a) the LEVELS OF PROCESSING THEORY proposes that .. levels of processing result in ..-.. memory codes.
- LONGER LASTING
15. b) "when the initial processing of information is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention."
- TRANSFER-APPROPRIATE PROCESSING
15. c) "assumes that COGNITIVE PROCESSES depend on PATTERNS of activation in highly INTERCONNECTED computational networks that resemble NEURAL networks."
- PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING
15. c) PDP MODELS assert that specific .. correspond to particular .. of activation in these networks; each .. represents specific .. or pieces of knowledge. Thus, the information lies in the strength of the .. ;
15. MULTIPLE MEMORY SYSTEMS?
- when an area of the brain is damaged that is related to memory, not all memory is lost
sometimes a person gets damage to hippocampus; - anterograde amnesia; however, we can still remember the past; maybe we have multiple memory systems that exist together;
15. TRANSFER APPROPRIATE PROCESSING?
e.g. if you review for multiple choice, and you have an essay test, you perform less well.
- influenced that memory is influenced by the "fit" b/w the processing during encoding and retrieval.