4: Sensation and Perception Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4: Sensation and Perception Deck (65):
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vision, hearing n touch (2)

- ENERGY senses
- gather energy in the form of LIGHT, WAVES, n PRESSURE

1

wavelengths longer than visible light (3)

- INFRARED waves
- MICROWAVES
- RADIO waves

2

wavelengths shorter than visible light (2)

- ULTRAVIOLET waves
- X-RAYS

3

FACTORS that determine the COLOURS we see (2)

- LIGHT INTENSITY (BRIGHTNESS)
- LIGHT WAVELENGTH (HUE)

4

colors of VISIBLE SPECTRUM from LONGEST to SHORTEST wavelength (1)

- Roy G. Biv

5

transduction

- TRANSLATION of INCOMING stimuli into NEURAL signals

6

rods (3)

- cells activated by BLACK n WHITE
- OUTNUMBER cones 20 to one
- distributed THROUGHOUT retina

7

cones (2)

- cells that respond to COLOR
- concentrated toward CENTER of RETINA

8

fovea

- INDENTATION at the CENTER of the RETINA that contains the highest CONCENTRATION of CONES

9

transduction in vision (steps: 5)

- FIRST LAYER of cells (CONES n RODS) are activated by light --> activate next layer of BIPOLAR CELLS --> activate GANGLION CELLS (optic nerve) --> LATERAL GENICULATE NUCLEUS/LNG (thalamus) --> VISUAL CORTICES (occipital lobe)

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blind spot

- spot where OPTIC NERVE leaves the RETINA (because it has no rods or cones)

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optic chiasm

- spot where the OPTIC NERVES CROSS each other

12

ganglion cells (in retina)

(NERVE CELL whose body is outside the CNS)
- AXONS make up the OPTIC NERVE nerve that sends impulses to specific region in the thalamus (LNG)

13

David HUBEL n Tom WIESEL (2)

- PERCEPTION researchers
- discovered that GROUPS of NEURONS in the VISUAL CORTEX respond to different TYPES of visual images --> FEATURE DETECTORS for vertical lines, curves, motion...

14

Theories of color vision (2)

- TRICHROMATIC THEORY
- OPPONENT-PROCESS THEORY

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TRICHROMATIC theory (3)

- hypothesizes that we have 3 types of CONES in the retina: detect BLUE, RED n GREEN
- activated in different COMBINATIONS to PRODUCE all the colors of the VISUAL SPECTRUM
- cannot explain some visual phenomena: AFTERIMAGES n COLOR BLINDNESS

16

Afterimages (2)

- when u STARE at a color for awhile, then look at a WHITE space, you see a color afterimage
- GREEN: afterimage is RED; YELLOW: after image is BLUE

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OPPONENT PROCESS THEORY (3)

- SENSORY RECEPTORS arranged n the retina comes in PAIRS: red/green; yellow/blue; black/white
- if ONE sensor is STIMULATED, its pair is INHIBITED from firing
- explains color blindness n afterimage

18

sound wave measurements (2)

- AMPLITUDE: HEIGHT of wave + LOUDNESS (DECIBELS)
- FREQUENCY: LENGTH of the waves + PITCH (MEGAHERTZ)

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parts of the ear (7)

- EAR CANAL
- EARDRUM (tympanic membrane)
- HAMMER (malleus)
- ANVIL (incus)
- STIRRUP (stapes)
- OVAL WINDOW
- COCHLEA

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organ of Corti

- NEURONS activated by MOVEMENT of the HAIR cells on the BASILAR MEMBRANE

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basilar membrane (2)

- on the FLOOR of the COCHLEA
- lined with HAIR CELLS

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pitch theories (2)

- PLACE theory
- FREQUENCY theory

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PLACE theory

- holds that HAIR CELLS in the cochlea RESPOND to different FREQUENCIES of sound based on where they are LOCATED in the COCHLEA

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FREQUENCY theory

- we sense PITCH because the HAIR CELLS fire at different RATES (frequencies) in the cochlea

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types of deafness (2)

- CONDUCTION deafness : occurs when sth goes wrong w. the SYSTEM of CONDUCTING SOUND to the cochlea
- NERVE (sensorineural) deafness : hair cells in cochlea are damaged

26

gate control theory (3)

- explains how we EXPERIENCE PAIN the way we do
- some pain MESSAGES have HIGHER PRIORITY than others
- when you scratch an itch, you feel scratching so itch is temporarily gone

27

color blindness (2)

- DICHROMATIC color blindness (can't see red/green or blue/yellow shades)
- MONOCHROMATIC (see only shades of gray)

28

papillae

- BUMPS you can see on your TONGUE
- TASTE BUDS are located on papillae

29

types of taste (5)

- sweet
- sour
- salty
- bitter
- unami ("meaty" "savory" taste)

30

Chemical senses (2)

- TASTE
- SMELL

31

how we smell (4)

- MOLECULES of SUBSTANCES rise into the AIR n DRAWN into NOSE
- molecules settle into MUCOUS MEMBRANE at the top of each nostril
- absorbed by OLFACTORY RECEPTOR CELLS (researchers estimate approx 100 different types)
- receptor cells linked to OLFACTORY BULB

32

olfactory bulb (2)

- gathers messages from OLFACTORY RECEPTOR CELLS n sends the information to the AMYGDALA, then the HIPPOCAMPUS (vs. thalamus)
- explains reason why POWERFUL trigger for memories?

33

Body position senses (2)

- VESTIBULAR SENSE
- KINESTHETIC SENSE

34

VESTIBULAR sense (4)

- tells us how our BODY is ORIENTED in SPACE
- 3 SEMI-CIRCULAR CANALS in INNER EAR give the brain feedback about body orientation
- when POSITION of HEAD changes, FLUID in canal moves, ACTIVATING HAIR CELL SENSORS, which sends info to brain
- NAUSEA n DIZZINESS when FLUID in CANALS is AGITATED

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KINESTHETIC sense (3)

- keeps track of POSITION and ORIENTATION of SPECIFIC BODY PARTS
- allows you to touch kneecap w. finger bcos kinesthetic sense provides INFORMATION about where your finger is IN RELATION to your kneecap
- RECEPTORS in our MUSCLES n JOINTS send information to brain

36

Psychophysics DEF

- study of INTERACTION b.w SENSATION n PERCEPTION (how we experience sensation)

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absolute threshold

- SMALLEST amount of STIMULUS we can DETECT 50% of the time
- absolute threshold for VISION: single candle flame about 30 miles away on a perfectly dark night
- SMELL: single drop of perfume a room away

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subliminal messages

- STIMULI BELOW our ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD
- COMPANIES claim that subliminal messages can change UNWANTED BEHAVIOR; "lose weight", "increase your vocabulary"

39

difference threshold (3)

- JUST-NOTICEABLE DIFFERENCE
- SMALLEST amount of CHANGE needed in a STIMULUS before we DETECT a change
- computed by WEBER-FECHNER law

40

WEBER-FECHNER law (3)

- Ernst WEBNER n Gustav FLECHNER (psychophysicists)
- states that the CHANGE NEEDED is PROPORTIONAL to the ORIGINAL INTENSITY of the stimulus (the more INTENSE the stimulus, the MORE CHANGE it will need be4 we detect a difference)
- e.g. amount of spice to a dish that didn't have any spice be4 vs +spice in a dish that already has spice

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WEBER additional discovery (3)

- esch sense VARIES ACCORDING to a CONSTANT
- e.g. constant for hearing is 5 percent: tone would have to increase 5 decibels (100-105) be4 we notice it is louder
- e.g. constant for vision is 8 percent: 8 candles would have to be added to 100 candles be4 we notice any difference

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perceptual theories (3)

- SIGNAL DETECTION theory
- TOP-DOWN processing
- BOTTOM-UP processing

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SIGNAL DETECTION theory (4)

- investigates the effects of the DISTRACTIONS n INTERFERENCE we experience while percieving the world
- tries to predict what we see among COMPETING CRITERIA
- takes into account RESPONSE CRITERIA
- tries to EXPLAIN n PREDICT the different PERCEPTUAL MISTAKES we make (FALSE POSITIVE/FALSE NEGATIVE)

44

response criteria (3)

- RECIEVER OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS
- how MOTIVATED we are to detect a certain stimuli
- e.g. more likely to smell pumpkin pie if i am hungry and like the taste of pumkin pie

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perceptual mistakes (2)

- FALSE POSITIVE: when we think we PERCIEVE a stimulus that is NOT THERE; seeing a friend on a crowded street and end up waving at a stranger
- FALSE NEGATIVE: NOT PERCIEVING a STIMULUS that is present; not notice the directions at the top of the test that instruct not to write on the test

46

TOP-DOWN processing (4)

- occurs when you use BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE to FILL IN GAPS in what you percieve
- FASTER but more PRONE to ERROR
- e.g. see images in CLOUDS
- e.g. backmasking

47

schemata (2)

- MENTAL REPRESENTATIONS of how we EXPECT the world to be
- schemata can create a PERCEPTUAL SET

48

perceptual set DEF.

- PREDISPOSITION to PERCIEVING sth a CERTAIN WAY

49

backmasking (2)

- supposed HIDDEN MESSAGES MUSICIANS RECORDED BACKWARD in their music
- ppl who listened to the songs played backward and had SCHEMATA of this music as dangerous or evil PERCIEVED the THREATENING messages due to TOP-DOWN processing

50

BOTTOM-UP processing

- aka FEATURE ANALYSIS
- use FEATURES of an OBJECT itself to build a COMPLETE PERCEPTION
- takes LONGER but is more ACCURATE

51

figure-ground relationship (3)

- a PERCEPTUAL DECISION
- what PART of the VISUAL IMAGE is the FIGURE and what part is the ground or the BACKGROUND
- several OPTICAL ILLUSIONS play w. this rule (picture of the vase that is also two faces)

52

FACTORS that influences how we GROUP OBJECTS (4) (GESTALT RULES)

- SIMILARITY: similar in appearance
- PROXIMITY:
- CONTINUITY: form a continuous form (trail, geometric figure)
- CLOSURE: similar to top down processing; objects that make up a recognizable image are more likely to be percieved as objects belonging to the same group.

53

constancy DEF.

- our ABILITY to MAINTAIN a CONSTANT PERCEPTION of an OBJECT despite VARIATIONS in LIGHT, ANGLE of VISION, and so on...

54

types of constancy (3)

- SIZE constancy: we keep a CONSTANT SIZE in MIND of an object and know that it does not GROW or SHRINK in size as it moves CLOSER n FARTHER away
- SHAPE constancy: objects viewed from DIFFERENT ANGLES will PRODUCE different SHAPES on our RETINAS, but we know the shape of an object is CONSTANT; e.g coffee mug viewed from side and above.
- BRIGHTNESS constancy: we PERCIEVE objects as being CONSTANT in COLOR, even as the LIGHT REFLECTING off of the object CHANGES; e.g. Brick red wall at night

55

situations where we perceive objects to be MOVING, when they are NOT (3)

- STROBOSCOPIC effect
- PHI phenomenon
- AUTOKINETIC effect

56

STROBOSCOPIC effect (2)

- IMAGES on a SERIES of STILL PICTURES PRESENTED at a CERTAIN SPEED will appear to be MOVING
- movies, flipbooks

57

PHI phenomenon (2)

- a SERIES of LIGHTBULBS turned ON and OFF will appear to be ONE MOVING LIGHT
- holiday lights

58

AUTOKINETIC effect (1)

- if a SPOT OF LIGHT is PROJECTED steadily onto the same place on a wall of an otherwise DARK FOOM and people are asked to STARE at it, they will REPORT seeing it MOVE

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CUES that we use to perceive DEPTH (2)

- MONOCULAR cues
- BINOCULAR cues

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MONOCULAR cues (5)

- LINEAR perspective: railroad track that runs awayf rom viewer into the distance: draw two lines that converge somewhere toward top of paper
- RELATIVE SIZE cue: draw boxcars closer to viewer as LARGER than the engine off in the distance
- INTERPOSITION cue: objects that BLOCK the VIEW of other OBJECTS must be CLOSER to us
- TEXTURE GRADIENT: draw rocks closest to the viewer in detail, while the landscape of int he distance would not be as detailed
- SHADOWING: IMPLY where LIGHT SOURCE is and thus imply DEPTH and POSITION of OBJECTS

61

BINOCULAR cues (2)

- BINOCULAR (RETINAL) DISPARITY: EACH of our EYES sees an object from a SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT ANGLE. (the closer an object, the more DISPARITY there will be B.W the IMAGES COMING frome EACH eye)
- CONVERGENCE: the more the eyes CONVERGE, the CLOSER the object must be (brain recieves feedback from the muscles controlling eye movement)

62

effects of culture on perception examples (2)

- cultures that do not use MONOCULAR DEPTH CUES in their ART do NOT SEE DEPTH in PICTURES using those CUES
- some OPTICAL ILLUSIONS are NOT PERCEIVED the SAME WAY by PEOPLE from DIF. CULTURES: people who come from NON CARPENTERED cultures that do not use right angles and corners are not fooled by the MULLER-LYER illusion

63

Gestalt psychologists (4)

- beginning of 1900s
- described the PRINCIPLES that GOVERN how we PERCEIVE groups of objects
- pointed out that we NORMALLY PERCEIVE images as GROUPS, not as ISOLATED ELEMENTS
- thought that this process was INNATE and INEVITABLE

64

Eleanor GIBSON (3)

- VISUAL DEPTH experiment: INFANT placed on top of a GLASS TOPPED TABLE that creates the IMPRESSION of a CLIFF
- RESULTS: infant old enough to CRAWL will NOT crawl across the visual cliff, IMPLYING the child has depth perception
- other experiments demonstrate that we develop depth perception at about THREE MONTHS OLS