4: Sensation and Perception Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > 4: Sensation and Perception > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4: Sensation and Perception Deck (65)
Loading flashcards...
0

vision, hearing n touch (2)

- ENERGY senses
- gather energy in the form of LIGHT, WAVES, n PRESSURE

1

wavelengths longer than visible light (3)

- INFRARED waves
- MICROWAVES
- RADIO waves

2

wavelengths shorter than visible light (2)

- ULTRAVIOLET waves
- X-RAYS

3

FACTORS that determine the COLOURS we see (2)

- LIGHT INTENSITY (BRIGHTNESS)
- LIGHT WAVELENGTH (HUE)

4

colors of VISIBLE SPECTRUM from LONGEST to SHORTEST wavelength (1)

- Roy G. Biv

5

transduction

- TRANSLATION of INCOMING stimuli into NEURAL signals

6

rods (3)

- cells activated by BLACK n WHITE
- OUTNUMBER cones 20 to one
- distributed THROUGHOUT retina

7

cones (2)

- cells that respond to COLOR
- concentrated toward CENTER of RETINA

8

fovea

- INDENTATION at the CENTER of the RETINA that contains the highest CONCENTRATION of CONES

9

transduction in vision (steps: 5)

- FIRST LAYER of cells (CONES n RODS) are activated by light --> activate next layer of BIPOLAR CELLS --> activate GANGLION CELLS (optic nerve) --> LATERAL GENICULATE NUCLEUS/LNG (thalamus) --> VISUAL CORTICES (occipital lobe)

10

blind spot

- spot where OPTIC NERVE leaves the RETINA (because it has no rods or cones)

11

optic chiasm

- spot where the OPTIC NERVES CROSS each other

12

ganglion cells (in retina)

(NERVE CELL whose body is outside the CNS)
- AXONS make up the OPTIC NERVE nerve that sends impulses to specific region in the thalamus (LNG)

13

David HUBEL n Tom WIESEL (2)

- PERCEPTION researchers
- discovered that GROUPS of NEURONS in the VISUAL CORTEX respond to different TYPES of visual images --> FEATURE DETECTORS for vertical lines, curves, motion...

14

Theories of color vision (2)

- TRICHROMATIC THEORY
- OPPONENT-PROCESS THEORY

15

TRICHROMATIC theory (3)

- hypothesizes that we have 3 types of CONES in the retina: detect BLUE, RED n GREEN
- activated in different COMBINATIONS to PRODUCE all the colors of the VISUAL SPECTRUM
- cannot explain some visual phenomena: AFTERIMAGES n COLOR BLINDNESS

16

Afterimages (2)

- when u STARE at a color for awhile, then look at a WHITE space, you see a color afterimage
- GREEN: afterimage is RED; YELLOW: after image is BLUE

17

OPPONENT PROCESS THEORY (3)

- SENSORY RECEPTORS arranged n the retina comes in PAIRS: red/green; yellow/blue; black/white
- if ONE sensor is STIMULATED, its pair is INHIBITED from firing
- explains color blindness n afterimage

18

sound wave measurements (2)

- AMPLITUDE: HEIGHT of wave + LOUDNESS (DECIBELS)
- FREQUENCY: LENGTH of the waves + PITCH (MEGAHERTZ)

19

parts of the ear (7)

- EAR CANAL
- EARDRUM (tympanic membrane)
- HAMMER (malleus)
- ANVIL (incus)
- STIRRUP (stapes)
- OVAL WINDOW
- COCHLEA

20

organ of Corti

- NEURONS activated by MOVEMENT of the HAIR cells on the BASILAR MEMBRANE

21

basilar membrane (2)

- on the FLOOR of the COCHLEA
- lined with HAIR CELLS

22

pitch theories (2)

- PLACE theory
- FREQUENCY theory

23

PLACE theory

- holds that HAIR CELLS in the cochlea RESPOND to different FREQUENCIES of sound based on where they are LOCATED in the COCHLEA

24

FREQUENCY theory

- we sense PITCH because the HAIR CELLS fire at different RATES (frequencies) in the cochlea

25

types of deafness (2)

- CONDUCTION deafness : occurs when sth goes wrong w. the SYSTEM of CONDUCTING SOUND to the cochlea
- NERVE (sensorineural) deafness : hair cells in cochlea are damaged

26

gate control theory (3)

- explains how we EXPERIENCE PAIN the way we do
- some pain MESSAGES have HIGHER PRIORITY than others
- when you scratch an itch, you feel scratching so itch is temporarily gone

27

color blindness (2)

- DICHROMATIC color blindness (can't see red/green or blue/yellow shades)
- MONOCHROMATIC (see only shades of gray)

28

papillae

- BUMPS you can see on your TONGUE
- TASTE BUDS are located on papillae

29

types of taste (5)

- sweet
- sour
- salty
- bitter
- unami ("meaty" "savory" taste)