Flashcards in MOTIVATION and EMOTION: In Class Notes Deck (21)
- used to explain the RELATIONSHIP b/w an ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULUS and a BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE
- we don't see the motivation, we see the behavior and then we say "oh it was motivated" e.g. dog eats the food, it was motivated.
- our desire for food, water, shelter, sex...
- panic, anger, love, ambition...
- influence of parents, peers, media...
- maintain HOMEOSTASIS --> motivation to stabilize; PRIMARY drives; SECONDARY drives
e.g. if i'm hungry, i seek food; if I'm full, i stop eating.
e.g. shivering warms us; sweating cools us
- seeks to regulate, balance arousal --> OPTIMAL AROUSAL LEVEL; depends on the person, some people like high levels of arousal (e.g. going to a jungle) or low levels of arousal (e.g. botanical garden)
- STRONG HEREDITARY CONTEXT
- focuses on the role of EXTERNAL STIMULI; (behaviorist); different b/w individuals, and can be different IN the individual at different points of time. - seeks to GAIN or AVOID incentive.
- WANT: a classical conditioning process
- LIKE: operant conditioning process; was it reinforcing after?
SENSE of WELLBEING derives from...? (4)
- HEREDITARY --> identical twin studies; very high positive correlation (.85) of general subjective sense of well-being
- SOCIAL TIES (obviously)
- RESOURCES (basic level of material comfort)
- we tend to–in mating behavior–wind up with those who are similar to us (more often than not)
Achievement MOTIVATION is .. but .. (among individuals and times...); we have pretty .. levels of motivation throughout life. There is also a .. element to motivation. (impulsiveness, control over emotions, sensory activity...)
(3) CHARACTERISTICS of HIGHLY MOTIVATED PPL
- EXCEPTIONALISM ("i'm special")
- INSECURITY (very strong person hanging on the edge of a very high cliff)
- IMPULSE CONTROL (your ability to control your impulses: defer and put off reinforcement)
GOAL SETTING helps you achieve when the .. of the GOAL is set HIGH.-->Did you SET your own goal or has someone else set that goal for you? .., .. GOALS are much more easily pursued.
- CLEAR, SPECIFIC
(KEY FACTS) All EMOTIONS are a .., .. EXPERIENCE; every EMOTION has parallel a .. manifestation in your ..; every EMOTION has a characteristic expression (e.g. .. language or .. expression)
- SUBJECTIVE (different b/w individuals)
CHARACTERISTICS of EMOTION (6)
- USUALLY TEMPORARY (if lasts longer--> mood; longer --> state)
- can be POSITIVE, NEGATIVE, or MIXED
- ALTERS THOUGHT
- triggers an ACTION TENDENCY-->you can restrain yourself
- OFTEN INVOLUNTARY (oftentimes, feeling just come over us)
- mixed bag of things we have LEARNED, and things that are INNATE.
BIOLOGY of EMOTION (5)
- AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (changes organ activity to meet a need and prepare for change; frees up energy +glucose into bloodstream)
- emotions goes first to THALAMUS --> then FAST and SLOW PATHWAYS; fast: thalamus --> amygdala(fear); slow: thalamus --> prefrontal cortex(process emotion)
- PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING; CLUSTERS of NEURONS are activated in different areas as we process emotion.
- activates MIRROR NEURONS
- note: when you FAKE a smile, you activate a DIFFERENT PART of the brain.
EMOTIONS like ANGER and ANXIETY tends to have more .. sided ACTIVITY; EMOTIONS like CALM and EMPATHY tends to have more .. sided ACTIVITY.
DAVIDSON'S CONTRIBUTION to EMOTION?
- discovered 6 different patterns of emotion in the brain; POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY; interaction w/ DALAI LLAMA; BUDDISM
NUCLEUS ACUBENS in STRIATUM?
- REWARD CIRCUIT
DAVIDSON'S (6) DIFFERENT PATTERNS of EMOTIONS?
- OUTLOOK (positive or negative?): NUCLEUS ACUBENS in STRIATUM
- RESILIENCE (how long does it take for you to bounce back from negative emotions?): PREFRONTAL CORTEX and AMYGDALA
- SOCIAL INTUITION (ability to detect emotional states of other people): amygdala and FUSIFORM GYRUS
- SELF-AWARENESS: back of FOREBRAIN (insula: tied to perception and limbic system)
- CONTEXT (how we behave according to context e.g. new years eve party vs. funeral...): hippocampus
- ATTENTION: phase locking in PREFRONTAL and ANTERIOR CINGULATE
FUSIFORM GYRUS is in .. ..
- OCCIPITAL LOBE (for recognizing faces)