MOTIVATION and EMOTION: In Class Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MOTIVATION and EMOTION: In Class Notes Deck (21):
1

INTERVENING VARIABLE?

- used to explain the RELATIONSHIP b/w an ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULUS and a BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE
- we don't see the motivation, we see the behavior and then we say "oh it was motivated" e.g. dog eats the food, it was motivated.

2

PHYSIOLOGICAL MOTIVATION?

- our desire for food, water, shelter, sex...

3

EMOTIONAL MOTIVATION?

- panic, anger, love, ambition...

4

SOCIAL MOTIVATION?

- influence of parents, peers, media...

5

DRIVE THEORY?

- maintain HOMEOSTASIS --> motivation to stabilize; PRIMARY drives; SECONDARY drives
e.g. if i'm hungry, i seek food; if I'm full, i stop eating.
e.g. shivering warms us; sweating cools us

6

AROUSAL THEORY?

- seeks to regulate, balance arousal --> OPTIMAL AROUSAL LEVEL; depends on the person, some people like high levels of arousal (e.g. going to a jungle) or low levels of arousal (e.g. botanical garden)
- STRONG HEREDITARY CONTEXT

7

INCENTIVE THEORY?

- focuses on the role of EXTERNAL STIMULI; (behaviorist); different b/w individuals, and can be different IN the individual at different points of time. - seeks to GAIN or AVOID incentive.
- WANT: a classical conditioning process
- LIKE: operant conditioning process; was it reinforcing after?

8

SENSE of WELLBEING derives from...? (4)

- HEREDITARY --> identical twin studies; very high positive correlation (.85) of general subjective sense of well-being
- SOCIAL TIES (obviously)
- RELIGION
- RESOURCES (basic level of material comfort)

9

ASSORTATIVE MATING?

- we tend to–in mating behavior–wind up with those who are similar to us (more often than not)

10

Achievement MOTIVATION is .. but .. (among individuals and times...); we have pretty .. levels of motivation throughout life. There is also a .. element to motivation. (impulsiveness, control over emotions, sensory activity...)

- UNIVERSAL
- VARIABLE
- STABLE
- GENETICA

11

(3) CHARACTERISTICS of HIGHLY MOTIVATED PPL

- EXCEPTIONALISM ("i'm special")
- INSECURITY (very strong person hanging on the edge of a very high cliff)
- IMPULSE CONTROL (your ability to control your impulses: defer and put off reinforcement)

12

GOAL SETTING helps you achieve when the .. of the GOAL is set HIGH.-->Did you SET your own goal or has someone else set that goal for you? .., .. GOALS are much more easily pursued.

- VALUE
- CLEAR, SPECIFIC

13

(KEY FACTS) All EMOTIONS are a .., .. EXPERIENCE; every EMOTION has parallel a .. manifestation in your ..; every EMOTION has a characteristic expression (e.g. .. language or .. expression)

- SUBJECTIVE (different b/w individuals)
- CONSCIOUS
- PHYSICAL
- BODY
- BODY
- FACIAL

14

CHARACTERISTICS of EMOTION (6)

- USUALLY TEMPORARY (if lasts longer--> mood; longer --> state)
- can be POSITIVE, NEGATIVE, or MIXED
- ALTERS THOUGHT
- triggers an ACTION TENDENCY-->you can restrain yourself
- OFTEN INVOLUNTARY (oftentimes, feeling just come over us)
- mixed bag of things we have LEARNED, and things that are INNATE.

15

BIOLOGY of EMOTION (5)

- AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (changes organ activity to meet a need and prepare for change; frees up energy +glucose into bloodstream)
- emotions goes first to THALAMUS --> then FAST and SLOW PATHWAYS; fast: thalamus --> amygdala(fear); slow: thalamus --> prefrontal cortex(process emotion)
- PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING; CLUSTERS of NEURONS are activated in different areas as we process emotion.
- activates MIRROR NEURONS
- note: when you FAKE a smile, you activate a DIFFERENT PART of the brain.

16

EMOTIONS like ANGER and ANXIETY tends to have more .. sided ACTIVITY; EMOTIONS like CALM and EMPATHY tends to have more .. sided ACTIVITY.

- RIGHT
- LEFT

17

DAVIDSON'S CONTRIBUTION to EMOTION?

-->NEUROLOGIST;
- discovered 6 different patterns of emotion in the brain; POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY; interaction w/ DALAI LLAMA; BUDDISM

18

NUCLEUS ACUBENS in STRIATUM?

- REWARD CIRCUIT

19

DAVIDSON'S (6) DIFFERENT PATTERNS of EMOTIONS?

- OUTLOOK (positive or negative?): NUCLEUS ACUBENS in STRIATUM
- RESILIENCE (how long does it take for you to bounce back from negative emotions?): PREFRONTAL CORTEX and AMYGDALA
- SOCIAL INTUITION (ability to detect emotional states of other people): amygdala and FUSIFORM GYRUS
- SELF-AWARENESS: back of FOREBRAIN (insula: tied to perception and limbic system)
- CONTEXT (how we behave according to context e.g. new years eve party vs. funeral...): hippocampus
- ATTENTION: phase locking in PREFRONTAL and ANTERIOR CINGULATE

20

FUSIFORM GYRUS is in .. ..

- OCCIPITAL LOBE (for recognizing faces)

21

POSITIVE EMOTIONS influence on BIOLOGY? (3)

- body will produce more GROWTH HORMONES
- stimulates PROLACTIN
- stimulates OXITOCIN (love chemical...)