(ENCODING)ATTENTION, which fosters .., is INHERENTLY .. and has been compared to a ... The COCKTAIL PARTY PHENOMENON suggests that input is screened .. in mental PROCESSING. Evidence indicates that the LOCATION of the attention filter(early/late) may be .., depending on the .. .. of current processing. .. .. undermines encoding and performance on other tasks, including driving.
- ENCODING - SELECTIVE - FILTER - LATE - FLEXIBLE - COGNITIVE LOAD - DIVIDED ATTENTION
(ENCODING)According to the .. of .. theory, STRUCTURAL, .., and .. encoding represent progressively .. levels of .. This generally results in a better .. of information.
- LEVELS OF PROCESSING THEORY - PHONEMIC - SEMANTIC - DEEPER - PROCESS - RECALL
(ENCODING).. enriches ENCODING by LINKING stimulus to other information. The creation of .. .. to REPRESENT words can enrich encoding. .. '' '' may help by creating two .. .. rather than just one. .. .. .. that emphasizes PERSONAL RELEVANCE may be especially useful in facilitating retention. Increasing the .. to remember at the time of the encoding can enhance memory.
- ELABORATION - VISUAL IMAGES - VISUAL - MENTAL CODES - SELF-REFERENT ENCODING - MOTIVATION
Ways to improve MEMORY (4)
- ELABORATION - VISUAL IMAGERY - PERSONAL RELEVANCE - MOTIVATION
LEVELS OF PROCESSING THEORY (3)
- STRUCTURAL - does it have a 'T'? - PHONEMIC - does it rhyme with mat? - SEMANTIC - does it fit in the sentence: he petted the ___ ?
(STORAGE)SHORT TERM MEMORY can maintain .. information for about 10-20 sec. STM has a .. CAPACITY that has long been believed to be about .. CHUNKS of information. However a more recent estimate suggesting that the .. of STM is .. items +/- 1 is becoming increasingly influential.
- UNREHEARSED - LIMITED - 7 - CAPACITY - 4
(STORAGE)The .. .. preserves information in its ORIGINAL form, probably for only a FRACTION of a ... Some THEORIES view .. PERSISTENCE as more like an .. than a memory.
- SENSORY STORE - SECOND - STIMULUS - ECHO
(STORAGE) STM appears to involve more than simple reheasal loop and has been reconceptualized by Baddeley as working memory.
STM appears to involve more than a simple .. LOOP and has been reconceptualized by Baddeley as .. ..'' '' includes the .. loop(repeating a phonenumber over an over again to remember), the .. sketchpad(mentally rearrange furniture in your room), a central .. system(switching the focus of attention), and an .. buffer(interface b/w LTM and STM). Individual differences in working memory capacity correlate with measures of many cognitive abilities.
- REHEARSAL - WORKING MEMORY - PHONOLOGICAL - VISIOSPATIAL - EXECUTIVE - EPISODIC
- SEMANTIC NETWORK
- CONCEPTUAL HIERARCHY
(STORAGE)LONG TERM MEMORY is an .. .. store that may hold information .. Penfield's ESB research and the existence of .. .. suggest LTM storage may be .., but .. is not convincing
- UNLIMITED CAPACITY - INDEFINITELY- FLASHBULB MEMORIES - PERMANENT - EVIDENCE
Information in LONG TERM MEMORY can be organized in SIMPLE CATEGORIES or .. .. SYSTEMS called .. .. A SCHEMA is an .. .. of knowledge about a particular .. or .. Generally, people are more likely to remember things that are .. with their SCHEMAS
- CLASSIFICATION - CONCEPTUAL HIERARCHIES - ORGANIZED CLUSTER - OBJECT OR EVENT - CONSISTENT
SEMANTIC NETWORKS consist of .. joined by ... Research suggests that activation spreads along the paths of semantic networks to activate .. .. words. Parallel distributed processing models of memory assert that specific memories corresponds to particular .. of activation in connectionist networks.
- CONCEPTS - PATHWAYS - CLOSELY ASSOCIATED - PATTERNS
(RETRIEVAL)"temporary inability to remember sth you now, which feels just out of reach." Represents a .. in RETRIEVAL
--> TIP OF THE TONGUE PHENOMENON
(RETRIEVAL) MEMORY can be JOGGED by .. .. Reinstating the .. of an event can also .. recall. This factor may account for cases in which .. appears to aid recall of previously forgotten information. However, '' seems to increase people's .. to report .. information
- RETRIEVAL CUES - CONTEXT - FACILITATE - HYPNOSIS - TENDENCY - INCORRECT
(RETRIEVAL) ways to help retrieval (2)
- RETRIEVAL CUES
- REINSTATE CONTEXT OF EVENT (GOING BACK TO THE PLACE IT HAPPENED) --> HYPNOSIS helps bcos tells person to picture them in the place the even occured
(RETRIEVAL) Memories are not .. .. of PAST EXPERIENCES. Memory is partially .. Research by LOFTUS on the .. effect shows that .. learned .. an event can .. one's MEMORY of the event. Even the simple act of .. a story can introduce .. into memory.
- EXACT REPLICAS - RECONSTRUCTIVE - MISINFORMATION - INFORMATION - AFTER - ALTER - RETELLING - INACCURACIES
(RETRIEVAL) .. .. involves DECIDING whether memories are BASED ON .. of actual events or on just THINKING about events.
- REALITY MONITORING
(RETRIEVAL) "the process of making ATTRIBUTIONS about the origins of memories." Did I hear this on Oprah or did I see it in the Scientific magazine? --> errors are common
- SOURCE MONITORING
(RETRIEVAL) "involves recalling to WHOM one has told what" Have I told you this story before? --> more COMMON for errors than SOURCE MONITORING because people tend to be .. .. when they tell the story.
--> DESTINATION MEMORY
- SELF FOCUSED
(FORGETTING) EBBINGHAUS' early studies of .. .. suggested that people forget very .. Subsequent research shows that Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve was exceptionally ... FORGETTING can be MEASURED by asking people to .., .., or relearn information. Different METHODS of measuring retention often reproduce different .. of forgetting. .. (e.g. multiple choice) measures tend to yeld HIGHER estimates of retention than recall measures.
- NONSENSE SYLLABLES - RAPIDLY - STEEP - RECALL, RECOGNIZE - ESTIMATES - RECOGNITION
(FORGETTING) Some forgetting, including PSEUDOFORGETTING, is caused by .. .. of information, which is usually due to .. .. .. DECAY THEORY proposed that forgetting occurs .. with the passage of .. It has proven .. to show tha decay occurs in ..
- INEFFECTIVE ENCODING - LACK OF ATTENTION - SPONTANEOUSLY - TIME - DIFFICULT - LTM
(FORGETTING) "occurs when old learning interferes with new information" - the professor has a harder time remembering the names of people in class because he has learned so many names in the past
- PROACTIVE LEARNING
(FORGETTING) "occurs when new learning interferes with old information" - the professor is having trouble remembering people's names from a year or two before because he has learned new people's names and they have overridden the names he learned in the past.
- RETROACTIVE LEARNING
(FORGETTING) "proposes that people forget information because of competition from other material"
- INTERFERENCE THEORY
RECOVERED MEMORIES about ABUSE pros (2)
- CHILD ABUSE IS COMMON
- REPRESSION IS A NORMAL RESPONSE
RECOVERED MEMORIES of ABUSE (cons) (3)
- THERAPISTS PROD PATIENTS TO INADVERTENTLY CREATE MEMORIES OF ABUSE
- CREATING FALSE MEMORIES IS NOT DIFICULT BECAUSE MEMORY IS MALLEABLE
--> MEMORIES RECOVERED SPONTANEOUSLY(by e.g. returning to the scene of the crime) ARE MORE RELIABLE
(PHYSIOLOGY OF MEMORY) According to KANDEL, memory traces reflect ALTERATIONS in .. release at SPECIFIC .. THOMPSON'S research suggests that memory traces my consist of .. .. .. Memories may also depend on LONG TERM POTENTIATION, which is the DURABLE .. in neural .. at .. along a specific .. .. ; .. may contribute to the SCULPTING of NEURAL CIRCUITS for memories.
- NEUROTRANSMITTER - SYNAPSES - LOCALIZED NEURAL CIRCUITS - INCREASE - EXCITABILITY - SYNAPSES - NEURAL PATHWAY - NEUROGENESIS
"a 25 year old gymnast who sustains a head trauma might find the prior three years, seven years, or her entire lifetime erased."
- RETROGRADE AMNESIA
"After her accident, the injured gymnast might suffer impaired abillity to remember people she meets, where she has parked her car, and so on."
- ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA
(PHYSIOLOGY OF MEMORY) STUDIES of AMNESIA and other research suggest that the .. and the broader MEDIAL .. .. system play a major role in MEMORY. These areas may be crucial to the .. of ..
- HIPPOCAMPUS - TEMPORAL LOBE - CONSOLIDATION OF MEMORY
TYPES of MEMORY (3)
- DECLARATIVE VS. PROCEDURAL
- SEMANTIC VS. EPISODIC
- PROSPECTIVE VS. RETROSPECTIVE
"this memory system handles factual information e.g. the rules to basketball"
- DECLARATIVE MEMORY
"houses memory for actions, skills, conditioned responses, and emotional responses – e.g. how to shoot a three-pointer; how to dribble"
"made up of chronological recollections of personal experiences – e.g. your first kiss"
- EPISODIC MEMORY
"contains GENERAL KNOWLEDGE that is not tied to the time when the information was learned – the names of the months, when JFK was assasinated..."
- SEMANTIC MEMORY
"remembering to perform actions in the future–remember to check the mailbox! give homeork to teacher..."
- PROSPECTIVE MEMORY
"remembering events from the past; previously learned information"
- RETROSPECTIVE MEMORY