Flashcards in BARRON7: Cognition Deck (47):
(2) models of MEMORY
- INFORMATION-PROCESSING MODEL
- LEVELS OF PROCESSING MODEL
The INFORMATION-PROCESSING MODEL is also called the...
- THREE BOX MODEL
"this model proposes the THREE STAGES that INFORMATION passes THRU before it is STORED"
- INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL
"External events are first processed by our .. .. Then some information is encoded into our .. ../.. memory. Some of that information is then encoded into .. .. ..
- SENSORY MEMORY
- SHORT TERM/WORKING MEMORY
- LONG TERM MEMORY
- demonstrated that information held in SENSORY MEMORY stayed for a split second
- experiment: grid--> nine letters; showed to participants 1/20th sec. participants could recall any of three rows perfectly.
"split-second perfect photograph of a scene"
- ICONIC MEMORY
"perfect, brief (3-4 sec) memory for sounds"
- ECHOIC MEMORY
What determines what sensory messages get encoded?
- SELECTIVE ATTENTION
"You have probably had the experience of speaking with one person at a party but then hearing someone say your name across the room. You were SELECTIVELY ATTENDING to the person you were talking to. However, once a SENSORY MESSAGE message entered SENSORY MEMORY that you knew was IMPORTANT, you SWITCHED your ATTENTION to that message, and it was encoded into your STM."
- COCKTAIL PARTY EFFECT
STM is also called .. .. because these are the memories we are currently working with and are .. of in our ..
- WORKING MEMORY
- established STM capacity to 7 (+/-)2 in a series of famous experiments
Fancy way to say MEMORY AIDS..
- MNEMONIC DEVICES
"My very excellent mother just served us nine pizzas" --> names of planets
- MNEMONIC DEVICE
WAYS to RETAIN information in STM (3)
- CHUNKING (DIVIDING INFO INTO GROUPS)
- MNEMONIC DEVICES
LONG TERM MEMORIES can be STORED in (3) different FORMATS
"memories of SPECIFIC EVENTS, stored in a sequential series of events. Example: remembering the last time you went on a date."
- EPISODIC MEMORY
"GENERAL KNOWLEDGE of the WORLD, stored as FACTS, MEANINGS, or CATEGORIES rather than sequentially. Example: What is the difference between effect and affect?"
- SEMANTIC MEMORY
"Memories of SKILLS and how to PERFORM them. These memories are sequential but might be very complicated to describe in words. Example: how to throw a curveball."
- PROCEDURAL MEMORY
"CONSCIOUS MEMORIES of facts or events we ACTIVELY tried to remember"
- EXPLICIT MEMORIES
"UNINTENTIONAL MEMORIES that we might not even realize that we have."
- IMPLICIT MEMORIES
another word for PHOTOGRAPHIC MEMORY...
- EIDETIC MEMORY
- studied patient with EIDETIC MEMORY
"This THEORY explains WHY we REMEMBER what we do by examining how DEEPLY the memory was PROCESSED or thought about."
- LEVELS OF PROCESSING MODEL
"Memories are neither short term nor long term. They are .. .. or .. processed."
-->LEVELS OF PROCESSING MODEL
- DEEPLY PROCESSED (ELABORATELY)
- SHALLOWLY PROCESSED (MAINTENANCE)
According to the LEVELS OF PROCESSING THEORY, we remember things we spend more .. .. and .. processing
- COGNITIVE TIME
"This theory explains why we remember .. better than simple recitation of events and why, in general, we remember .. better than statements. When we get caught up in a '', or and intriguing '', we process it .. and are therefore more likely to remember it."
--> LEVELS OF PROCESSING MODEL
(2) different kinds of RETRIEVAL
"process of MATCHING a CURRENT EVENT or fact with one already in MEMORY" – have I smelled this smell before? a multiple choice question – the answer is there
"retrieving a memory with an EXTERNAL CUE" – hmm, what does my friend Sophie's perfume smell like?
- ESTABLISHED THE ORDER OF ITEMS IN A LIST IS RELATED TO WHETHER OR NOT WE WILL RECALL THEM
"this predicts that we are more likely to recall items presented at the BEGINNING OF A LIST"
- PRIMACY EFFECT
"our ability to remember items at the END OF A LIST"
- RECENCY EFFECT
Together, the PRIMACY and RECENCY EFFECT demonstrates..
- THE SERIAL POSITION EFFECT
"this theory states that our brain might form new memories by CONNECTING their MEANING and CONTEXT with meanings already in memory." --> name of a person is connected to their character traits, what they usually wear, how they talk..
- SEMANTIC NETWORK THEORY
"If you ask someone born in the 1990s or earlier where they were during the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack, they are likely to give you a detailed description of exactly what they were doing in those moment"
- FLASHBULB MEMORY (not always accurate)
"greater likelihood of recalling an item when our MOOD MATCHED the MOOD we were in when the event happened" happy --> happy memories; sad --> sad memories
- MOOD-CONGRUENT MEMORY
"phenomenon of recalling events encoded while in particular STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS" --> drowsy --> need to brush your teeth
- STATE-DEPENDENT MEMORY
"Individuals claim SUDDENLY to remember events they have "REPRESSED" for years, often in the process of THERAPY"
- "RECOVERED MEMORY"
"this memory can report FALSE DETAILS of a real event or might even be a recollection of an event that NEVER OCCURRED"
- CONSTRUCTED MEMORY
How to create false memories?
- REPEATEDLY ASKING INSISTENT QUESTIONS
How to differentiate b/w a FALSE and REAL MEMORY (2)
- PHYSICAL EVIDENCE
- OTHER VALIDATED REPORTS OF THE EVENT
"forgetting because we do not use a memory or connection to a memory for a LONG PERIOD OF TIME"
"other information competes with what you are trying to recall"
CAUSES of FORGETTING (3)
- IMPROPER ENCODING
- INTERFERENCE (PROACTIVE AND RETROACTIVE)
"learning NEW INFORMATION INTERFERES with the RECALL of OLDER INFORMATION. If you study your psychology at 3pm and sociology at 6pm you might have trouble recalling the psychology information on a test the next day"
- RETROACTIVE LEARNING
"older information learned previously interferes with the recall of information learned more recently." teacher learned previous names
- PROACTIVE LEARNING