Flashcards in BARRON8: Motivation and Emotion Deck (45):
THEORIES of MOTIVATION (3)
- DRIVE REDUCTION THEORY
- AROUSAL THEORY
DRIVE REDUCTION THEORY?
- theory that our behavior is motivated by BIOLOGICAL NEEDS; our body seeks HOMEOSTASIS; PRIMARY DRIVES, SECONDARY DRIVES...
- balanced internal state
- our IMPULSE to act in a way that SATISFIES a NEED; primary drives are BIOLOGICAL NEEDS; secondary drives are LEARNED DRIVES.
ARGUMENT against DRIVE REDUCTION THEORY?
- cannot explain ALL our MOTIVATIONS.
- why does anyone go SKYDIVING or ride a ROLLERCOASTER? --> risky; where do these motivations come from?
- we seek the OPTIMAL level of EXCITEMENT/AROUSAL (individuals differ --> some have high optimum levels, others have low...)
THEORY similar to the AROUSAL THEORY?
- OPPONENT-PROCESS THEORY OF MOTIVATION --> we have a BASELINE state; we perform acts that move us from the baseline state e.g. smoke a cigarette; there is an OPPONENT PROCESS, a motivation to return to our baseline; WITHDRAWAL --> discomfort of withdrawal moves us away from our baseline.
- behavior pulled by STIMULI we are drawn to due to learning --> INCENTIVE; we are motivated to seek rewards.
- pointed out that not all needs are CREATED EQUAL --> HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
HIERARCHY OF NEEDS? (5)
- PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS --> SAFETY NEEDS --> BELONGINGNESS AND LOVE NEEDS --> ESTEEM NEEDS --> SELF-ACTUALIZATION NEEDS
ROLE of HYPOTHALAMUS in HUNGER?
- MONITORS and helps to control BODY CHEMISTRY (e.g. ratio of glucose n insulin) n makes us feel hungry when we need to eat;
-->LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS and VENTROMEDIAL HYPOTHALAMUS
The .. HYPOTHALAMUS when stimulated causes an animal to EAT. Destruction of this area .. hunger, and the animal will .. to death unless forced to eat. Another part of the hypothalamus, the .. HYPOTHALAMUS, causes the animal to .. eating when it is stimulated. If this area is destroyed, the animal will .. and .. .. weight unless it is deprived of food.
- GAIN MORE
- how quickly our body uses energy
- states that the HYPOTHALAMUS wants to maintain a certain OPTIMUM BODY WEIGHT. When our weight increases, the hypothalamus raises our metabolic rate to burn any excessive food
Criticism against SET-POINT THEORY? (1)
- PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS such as LEARNING and COGNITION play a larger role in MAINTAINING BODY WEIGHT.
- motivated to eat by EXTERNAL FOOD CUES, e.g. attractiveness and availability of food.
- less affected by the presentation of food and respond more to INTERNAL HUNGER CUES
- affects what food you like; pair a certain food w/ NAUSEA if you eat sth, and then feel sick (even though you know it was not the food that made you sick)
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS in HUNGER MOTIVATION (3)
- INTERNAL/EXTERNAL SPECTRUM
- GARCIA EFFECT - affect what foods we like/don't like
- CULTURE/BACKGROUND - we usually prefer foods our family, region, and culture prefer because those are the foods we learned to like.
TYPES of EATING DISORDERS (3)
- ANOREXIA NERVOSA
Difference b/w BULIMIA and ANOREXIA? (1)
- while anorexics are at least 15% below the typical weight of some1 their age and size, bulimics' weight tends to be average or even slightly above.
WILLIAM MASTERS and VIRGINIA JOHNSON?
- documented the SEXUAL RESPONSE CYCLE in men and women.
(4) STAGES of SEXUAL RESPONSE
- INITIAL EXCITEMENT (genital areas become engorged with blood, penis becomes erect, respiration and heart rate increases)
- PLATEAU PHASE (respiration and heart rate continue at an elevated level)
- RESOLUTION PHASE (men experience refractory period; women can repeat cycle immediately)
BIOLOGICAL CAUSES of HOMOSEXUALITY? (3)
- SPECIFIC STRUCTURES might differ in SIZE in the brain b/w homosexuals and heterosexuals
- twin is more likely to be gay if IDENTICAL TWIN is gay
- theory that HORMONES in the WOMB might change brain structure and influence sexual orientation.
RESEARCH in ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION? (1)
- studies show that some ppl have HIGH ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION and consistently feel motivated to CHALLENGE THEMSELVES more than do other ppl --> varies from PERSON to PERSON and ACTIVITY to ACTIVITY
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATORS? e.g. (2)
- REWARDS we get for accomplishments from OUTSIDE ourselves
e.g. GRADES, SALARY...
- REWARDS we get INTERNALLY, just as ENJOYMENT or SATISFACTION.
Studies have shown that if we want an advantageous behavior to continue, .. motivation is most effective. Extrinsic motivators are very effective for a .. period of ...
(2) BASIC ATTITUDES that affect how MANAGERS do their jobs
- THEORY X: employees will work only --> rewarded w/ benefits or threatened w/ punishment
- THEORY Y: employees are internally motivated n policies should encourage this internal motive
TYPES of MOTIVATIONAL CONFLICTS (4)
- APPROACH-APPROACH CONFLICT-->choose b/w 2 desirable choices (san fran or new york?)
- AVOIDANCE-AVOIDANCE CONFLICT-->choose b/w 2 unattractive outcomes
(wash dishes or sweep floor?)
- APPROACH-AVOIDANCE CONFLICT-->one goal or event has both attrative and unattractive features (ice cream yummy but unhealthy)
- MULTIPLE APPROACH-AVOIDANCE CONFLICTS--> chose b/w multiple things that both have desirable and undesirable things (choosing colleges)
WILLIAM JAMES and CARL LANGE?
- theorized that we feel EMOTION because of PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES caused by STRESS;
e.g. we see the bear, ANS revs up, experience fear -->The AUTONOMIC NS controls emotions entirely. No cognitive interpretation.
- according to him: no physiological change no emotion.
- kind of true...there IS a connection b/w ANS and EMOTIONS (blood flows to hand and feet when angry; less blood flow to extremities when frightened.
WALTER CANNON and PHILIP BARD?
- theorized that the BIOLOGICAL CHANGE and the COGNITIVE AWARENESS of the EMOTIONAL STATE occur SIMULTANEOUSLY.
- "not just ANS; also CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (cerebral cortex!)
- however, there are cases where there isn't any cognitive interpretation, e.g. --> IRRATIONAL FEARS
"in other words, you might assume that your pulse is racing BECAUSE you are fearful...This theory argued that you're fearful BECAUSE your pulse is racing."
- JAMES-LANGE THEORY
--> two factor theory
CANNON-BARD THEORY (2)
- BIOLOGICAL CHANGE n COGNITIVE AWARENESS SIMULTANEOUS
--> (overestimated) role of THALAMUS->send signals simultaneously to CORTEX and AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
"showed that ppl who are already PHYSIOLOGICALLY AROUSED (e.g. after jog) experience MORE INTENSE EMOTIONS than unaroused people (lying on a couch)"
- TWO-FACTOR THEORY
TWO FACTOR THEORY?
- the experience of emotion depends on 2 factors: AUTONOMIC AROUSAL n COGNITIVE INTERPRETATION (note: cognitive interpretation can depend on your culture; e.g. african tribe and hindu on fighting)
- when you experience visceral arousal, you search the environment for an explanation
The FACIAL EXPRESSIONS we make for .. EMOTIONS may be an .. part of our .. makeup--> studies show that people across cultures are able to label facial expressions pretty accurately
THOMAS HOLMES and RICHARD RAHE?
- designed one of the first INSTRUMENTS to MEASURE STRESS--> SOCIAL READJUSTMENT RATING SCALE
SOCIAL READJUSTMENT RATING SCALE? (SRRS) (2)
- measures stress in LIFE-CHANGING UNITS e.g. selling a home, changing jobs...
- events usually considered POSITIVE (e.g. wedding) counts for just as much(or more) as negative event (e.g. getting fired)
--> GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME (GAS)
THEORIES about EMOTION (3)
GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME (GAS)? (3)
-->describes the general response animals(incl.humans) have to a STRESSFUL EVENT
- ALARM REACTION: heart rate, blood diverted to muscles, sympathetic nervous system
- RESISTANCE; body remains physiologically ready; hormones maintain this state; body can deplete resources
- EXHAUSTION: parasympathetic returns physiological state to normal; can be more vulnerable to disease if resources were depleted-->extended periods of stress
.. over events tends to LESSEN STRESS, while a perceived LACK of '' generally makes the event more STRESSFUL. e.g. (2)
- RAT less likely to develop ULCERS if control duration of ELECTRIC SHOCKS (even though both groups receive same amount of shock(
- patients experience LESS PAIN if can control amount of MORPHINE